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Monday, January 30, 2012

Surgical Spirit

Surgical Spirit is a clear, colourless liquid with a distinctive odour and is prepared from a special Denatured Alcohol solution. It is sometimes referred to as 'Rubbing Alcohol'.

Surgical Spirit is widely used as a topical preparation for cooling, soothing or hardening the skin in a wide variety of applications such as in hospitals, in the welding industry, by some musicians and by those who enjoy hill walking.

Surgical Spirit is used for its antiseptic properties in cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and in treating minor cuts and abrasions.

Surgical Spirit is used by surgeons to cleanse their hands and instruments before surgery.

Silver Acetate

Silver acetate (AgC 2 H 3 O 2 ) is a photosensitive, white crystalline substance commonly used as a pesticide. It also produces a repulsive taste when combined with cigarette smoke, so it is used in chewing gum and lozenges to aid the cessation of smoking.

In industry, silver acetate has been used in the preparation of highly reflective, conductive silvered polymer films.

Silver Acetate is also could be used to catalyze cycloaddition reactions of isocyanatoacetates.

In the health field, silver acetate-containing products have been used in such products as gum, spray, and lozenges to deter smokers from smoking.


Mortar is a workable paste used to bind construction blocks together and fill the gaps between them. The blocks may be stone, brick, cinder blocks, etc.

Portland cement mortar (is very often known simply as cement mortar) and is created by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), hydrated lime, and aggregate (or sand) with water.

The use of mortars in bulk silos (granel) offers many advantages for the contractors in terms of logistics and efficiency increase. There is a lot of potential throughout the world especially in urban agglomerations.

Bromoacetic Acid

Bromoacetic acid is the chemical compound with the formula CH2BrCO2H. This colorless solid is a relatively strong alkylating agent.

Bromoacetic acid and its esters are widely used building blocks in organic synthesis, for example in pharmaceutical chemistry.

Monobromoacetic acid has been used in commercial letterpress printing, in the production of plastics and in medical and surgical hospitals.

Alcohol Sorghum

Sweet sorghum is rich in stalk sucrose & sugars which resemble exactly sugarcane for its juicy stalk as has an advantage over sugarcane for alcohol production. The sugarcane stalks has a great potential to produce alcohol.

Worldwide the brewing industry is becoming more competitive and constantly looking for ways to improve beer quality and reduce manufacturing costs. Sweet sorghum is a new potential substitute for barley which can be used as an alternate substrate and also raise economic benefits.

Sweet sorghum alcohol production was estimated to generate 70 kWh of electricity per ton of bagasse, based on the electricity production from sugarcane bagasse.

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Copper Acetate

Copper(II) acetate, also referred to as cupric acetate, is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(OAc)2 where OAc- is acetate (CH3CO2-). The hydrated derivative, which contains one molecule of water for each Cu atom, is available commercially. Anhydrous Cu(OAc)2 is a dark green crystalline solid, whereas Cu(OAc)2(H2O)2 is more bluish-green. Since ancient times, copper acetates of some form have been used as fungicides and green pigments. Today, copper acetates are used as reagents for the synthesis of various inorganic and organic compounds. Copper acetate, like all copper compounds, emits a blue-green glow in a flame. Copper(II) acetate was historically prepared in vineyards, since acetic acid is a byproduct of fermentation. Copper sheets were alternately layered with fermented grape skins and dregs left over from wine production and exposed to air. This would leave a blue substance on the outside of the sheet.

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Sodium lignosulphonate

  • Sodium lignosulfonate (lignosulfonic acid, sodium salt) is used in the food industry as a de-foaming agent for paper production and in adhesives for items that come in contact with food. It has antimicrobial and preservative properties, and is used as an ingredient in animal feeds.
  • It is also used for construction, ceramics, mineral powder, chemical industry, textile industry (leather), metallurgical industry, petroleum industry, fire-retardant materials, rubber vulcanization, organic polymerization.
  • Sodium lignosulfonate was prepared from stripped sulphite waste liquor obtained from the Rhinelander Paper Company, Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Twelve L of this liquor were filtered and then saturated with sodium chloride.

Monday, January 23, 2012

Algae Farming in the USA - 7 days away - Limited Seating

 Spirulina Cultivation
Interest may attend ...
For additional
information, please contact:National Algae Association4747 Research
Forest Dr., Suite 180The Woodlands, Texas 77381936.321.1125

Friday, January 20, 2012

Palladium Acetate

Palladium(II) acetate is a chemical compound of palladium described by the formula Pd(O2CCH3)2 or Pd(OAc)2. It is considered more reactive than the analogous platinum compound. It is soluble in many organic solvents.
Palladium has a rich organometallic chemistry which has developed over the past twenty-five years. While palladium is not unique in its ability to carry out a wide range of carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, its ver- satility has resulted in an increasing effort being made towards the use of palladium reagents in organic synthesis in academic and industrial research laboratories.Widely used procedures such as the Heck, Suzuki and Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions and Buckwald-Hartwig aminations most commonly employ a palladium-based catalyst.

Swimming Pool

Swimming Pool or Pool means an artificial basin, chamber or tank used, or intended to be used, for public swimming, diving, or recreative bathing, but does not include baths where the main purpose is the cleaning of the body, nor individual therapeutic tub.
Swimming pools provide a great way to exercise and beat the summer heat. Building and maintaining a pool, however, also means relatively high costs added to your household’s budget.

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Methanol to Gasoline

  • The mobile MTG (Methanol to Gasoline) process converts methanol to high octane unleaded Gasoline using a zeolite catalyst.
  • The process, which would be the first commercial production in the world, would supply one-third of the domestic gasoline demand 22% of its total fuel requirements in 1986, when the plant was in full operation.
  • The Mobil MTG process was said to be able to able to produce a barrel of synthetic gasoline for US 23 dollar.

Saturday, January 14, 2012

Friday, January 13, 2012

Trifluoroacetic Acid

Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is the simplest stable perfluorinated carboxylic acid chemical compound, with the formula CF3CO2H. It is a strong carboxylic acid due to the influence of the electronegative trifluoromethyl group. TFA is almost 100,000-fold more acidic than acetic acid. TFA is widely used in organic chemistry.

TFA occurs naturally in sea water, but only in small concentrations (<200 ng/L). Therefore, TFA is prepared industrially by the electrofluorination of acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride, followed by hydrolysis of the resulting trifluoroacetyl fluoride.

Thursday, January 12, 2012


Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2. This colorless gas gained infamy as a chemical weapon during World War I. It is also a valued industrial reagent and building block in synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds. In low concentrations, its odor resembles freshly cut hay or grass.
The primary use of phosgene is in the production of toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a precursor of the polyurethane resins used to make foams, elastomers, and coatings. A rapidly growing use of phosgene is in the manufacture of polymethylene polyphenylisocyanate (PMPPI), which is used in the production of rigid polyurethane foams.

Wednesday, January 11, 2012


  • Diphenyl carbonate (DPC)is an organic chemical compound. It is both as a monomer in combination with bisphenol A in the production of polycarbonate polymers and a product of the decomposition of polycarbonates.
  • DPC is produced in two steps: phenol and DMC react to form phenylmethyl carbonate (PMC), followed by PMC disproportionation to DPC.
  • High purity Diphenyl carbonate can be synthesized via the transesterification of DMC and phenol.

Saturday, January 07, 2012


  • Lithophone is a white pigment consisting of a mixture of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide. It is used in interior paints and in some enamels. It is widely used for white paint.
  • It was manufactured by Krebs Pigments and Chemical Company and other companies.The material came in different "seals", which vary in percent of zinc sulfide. Gold seal and Bronze seals contain 40-50% zinc sulfide, offering more hiding power and strength.
  • It is produced by precipitation through filtering, heating and quenching works. Lithopone has mostly been replaced by titanium dioxide which is more durable, but it is much cheaper. It is used as a base for lake pigment and used as a inert pigment for paint, ink and cosmetics as well as in a large range of applications in plastic industry. It is used as a filler in paper, leather, and linoleum.

Solvent Extraction

Solvent extraction (also known as chemical extraction) is a cleanup method that uses solvents to extract or remove harmful chemicals from polluted materials.
The greatest contribution in achievements of solvent extraction provided extractants based on hydroxyoximes. As they were synthesized there were no better copper extractants, and since then all investigations were performed in order to improve their properties.
With the recently developed technologies that are now under investigations in demonstration plants and ongoing research into improved technologies, we can safely predict that solvent extraction will eventually contribute to an increasing fraction of the copper produced each year not only from oxide but also from sulphide ores.

Renewable Energy Certificate

A REC represents the property rights to the environmental, social, and other nonpower qualities of renewable electricity generation.
RECs are known under functionally equivalent names such as Green Tags or Tradable Renewable Certificates (TRCs), depending on the market. The U.S. currently does not have a national registry of RECs issued.
In India there are several options for pricing renewable electricity such as using Market determined prices, linking prices to Unscheduled Interchange (UI) prices, setting the tariff for electricity generated from renewable resources as average power purchase price of the distribution licensee or fixing normative or feed-in tariff for particular renewable technology.

Greener Solvents

Green chemistry is a chemical philosophy encouraging the design of products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
There is growing interest in developing more environmentally acceptable processes in chemical or biotechnological industries. This trend towards what has become known as sustainable technologies can be defined as green chemistry and white biotechnology, when the emphasis is focussed on chemical or biotechnological processes, respectively

Gas Appliances

Gas appliances is a requirement of every household, therefore the demand for these appliances is likely to increase in the local as well as the foreign market. Furthermore, only a small proportion of the market share is taken up by imported appliances, which reinforces the fact that local products have a higher demand in the domestic market.
Total global trade in terms of imports of gas appliances was $6.394 billion in 2009. USA is the largest importing country with a share of 30.2% and a total value of $1.931 billion. USA is a rapidly growing market with high annual growth rate. Germany is the second largest importer in this category with imports of $529.590 million. France is the third largest importer with total imports of $496.905 million.

Thursday, January 05, 2012


Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension of a liquid, the interfacial tension between two liquids, or that between a liquid and a solid. Surfactants may act as detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, and dispersants.

Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are amphiphilic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their tails) and hydrophilic groups (their heads). Therefore, a surfactant molecule contains both a water insoluble (or oil soluble) component and a water soluble component. Surfactant molecules will diffuse in water and adsorb at interfaces between air and water or at the interface between oil and water, in the case where water is mixed with oil.

Synthetic Cells

The creation of the synthetic cell is part of an effort to design a "minimal cell" containing only the most basic genome required for life.

Biology, an emerging engineering discipline to program cell behaviors as easily as we program computers. Synthetic biology will improve our quantitative understanding of natural biological processes and will also have biotechnology applications in areas such as biosensing, synthesis of pharmaceutical products, molecular fabrication of biomaterials and nanostructures, and tissue engineering.

The ability to make artificial cells is a scientific milestone of immense proportions. Achieving it would mark a profound understanding of the biochemical systems that embody life, and it would also provide a fast track toward a series of fundamental scientific insights.

Starch Hydrolysates

Hydrogenated starch hydrosylate (HSH) is a mixture of several sugar alcohols (a type of sugar substitute).

Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates are produced by the partial hydrolysis of starch – most often corn starch but also potato starch or wheat starch. This creates dextrins (glucose and short glucose chains). The hydrolyzed starch (dextrin) then undergoes hydrogenation to convert the dextrins to sugar alcohols.

Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysates are being used by the food industry for many years, especially in confectionery products. With time, they have become important food ingredients because of their sweetness, low cariogenic potential, and useful functional properties.

Wednesday, January 04, 2012

Alcohol Sorghum

Sweet sorghum is rich in stalk sucrose & sugars which resemble exactly sugarcane for its juicy stalk as has an advantage over sugarcane for alcohol production. The sugarcane stalks has a great potential to produce alcohol.

Worldwide the brewing industry is becoming more competitive and constantly looking for ways to improve beer quality and reduce manufacturing costs. Sweet sorghum is a new potential substitute for barley which can be used as an alternate substrate and also raise economic benefits.

India is the second largest producer of sorghum in the world.

Experts in the opinion that the average cost of ethanol production from sweet sorghum is around Rs. 13.25 per liter which makes it a most feasible raw material for production of ethanol in an entire year as minimum two crops could be taken in one year.