- An Anaesthetic Needle for medical application that is easy to use which is rotatably inserted into the epidural needle from a proximal end portion. The epidural needle is provided, at the proximal end portion with a length adjusting mechanism of a tube shape extending in an axial direction.
- Characteristics are varies in gauge and length , short for maxillary and long for mandibular.
- The dental anesthetic needles tested were of 3 different gauges 25, 27 and 30, varying lengths range from 21mm to 35mm.
- Local Anaesthetic needles which includes straight and Touchey needles for local, spinal and epidural Anaesthesia.
- Main Function of this needle is to inject anesthetic into soft tissue.
Friday, September 28, 2012
Thursday, September 27, 2012
- Phosphonates are anthropogenic complexing agents containing one or more C–PO(OH)2 groups.
Phosphonates are molecules with a characteristic C–PO3H2 group.
They are used in numerous technical and industrial applications as chelating agents and scale inhibitors.
Phosphonates are similar to phosphates except that they have a carbon–phosphorous (C–P) bonding place of the carbon–oxygen phosphorous (C–O–P) linkage.
- Tetra-n-butyl titanate catalyses the esterification, transesterification reaction, and Polymerisation of epoxies, phenolics and silicone.
- The also functions as a cross linking agent in wire enamels, surface coatings, printing inks, silicon RTV compounds, and olefin polymerization systems.
- As a surface modifier, tetra-n-butyl titanate promotes adhesion, works as a wax and oil additive, and makes glass scratch-resistant.
- As a cross linking agent to improve the mechanical properties in Wire Enamels
- Catalyst for esterification, transesterification & polymerization reaction.
- Fistula catheter is a fluoroplastic catheter which can prevent the graft of internal wall from damaging in case the patient moves or flexes their arm.
- It is a highly biocompatible tri-beveled internal metal needle which is used for puncturing, and it is covered by a sealless blunt tipped catheter with a central opening that is called lumen of the catheter and side slots in the catheter tip.
- The caliber of the internal needle is 16G and the internal gauge of the catheter is 14G. It is equipped with a non return valve, to prevent blood from dripping and a cover to avoid accidental puncturing.
Wednesday, September 26, 2012
- A White Crystalline powder, insoluble in water, soluble in chloroform and slightly soluble in methanol.
- Oxandrolone is a popular anabolic steroid that hit the market in the 1960 under the trade name Anavar.
- Leading steroids in therapeutic steroidal treatment.
- An anabolic steroid used to treat involuntary weight loss caused by acute or chronic injury, illness or infection.
Tuesday, September 25, 2012
- Neem (Azadirachta indica) is commonly and widely grown tree in India.
- Natural pesticides and herbal products are manufactured from Neem oil extracts, Azadirachta which is obtained by alcoholic extraction of Neem Oil as a value-added product.
- Bio-pesticides are usually less toxic than conventional chemical pesticides
- Neem tree, the basic raw material for Neem oil, is native to India, Burma and other South East Asian countries.
- Neem based bio-pesticides are economical and effective for crops like cotton, potatoes and Other horticulture crops, grown in Gujarat.
- Antibiotic is a substance produced by certain bacteria or fungi. With their growth, they kills other cells or interferes. In nature, these substances help some microbes survive by limiting the multiplication of other microbes that share the same environment.
- Antibiotics that attack pathogenic (means disease-causing) microbes, without severely harming normal body cells are useful as drugs.
- Antibiotics are especially useful for treating infections caused by bacteria.
- NITROCHLOROBENZENE (also called NITROBENZOL ) is a colorless to pale yellow, oily, highly toxic liquid with the odour of bitter almonds.
- Nitrobenzene is manufactured commercially by nitration of benzene using nitric and sulfuric acids mixture.
- Both batch and continuous processes employing mixed nitric and sulfuric acids are used to make nitrochlorobenzene.
- The continuous process is favored over the batch process because its production capacity is much larger.
- Flotation is a process technique upgrading ores by using flotation reagents in the flotation vessel. This process involves modifying and taking advantage of the differences in surface chemistry of the materials to be separated.
- Three principal types of flotation reagents are collectors, regulating agents, and frothing agents.
- Collectors are organic substances that impart hydrophobicity to mineral particles to be floated, which makes possible the attachment of the particles to gas bubbles.
- Regulating agents are used to increase the selectivity of collector adherence to the surface of specific minerals, increase the strength of the adherence, reduce the amount of collector used.
- Frothing agents increase the stability of the mineralized froth and facilitate the dispersion of air in the pulp and the formation of the minutest possible bubbles.
Monday, September 24, 2012
- Sikacim is a highly effective liquid Integral waterproofing admixture for all types of concrete viz. roof casting, beam, culvert, tunnel,sewerage works, virtually wherever watertight concrete is required
- Colouring of concrete and mortar containing cement:
- Concrete flagstones, decorative plaster ,bagging slurries, all aesthetic concrete
- The uniformity of the colour depends on the uniformity and proportioning of the components in the mortar or concrete (cement, water, aggregates, additives and sikacim® colour za)
Sunday, September 23, 2012
Saturday, September 22, 2012
- Drugs commonly referred to as "steroids" are classified as anabolic (or anabolic-androgenic) and corticosteroids.
- Corticosteroids, such as cortisone, are drugs that doctors typically prescribe to help control inflammation in the body
- Steroids are a class of naturally occurring or synthetic compounds that can serve as “sex hormones, adrenal cortical hormones, bile acids, sterols, anabolic agents, and oral contraceptives”
- Anabolic steroids usually caused azoospermia
- Taking steroids for these purposes is illegal and may be dangerous.
- such as testosterone deficiency,ertain kinds of anaemia,some kinds of breast cancer, calcium deficiency, muscle-wasting conditions
Friday, September 21, 2012
- Medical tourism can be explained as the practice of travelling from one country to another country for the purpose of receiving medical attention, like heart surgery, breast implants, hip replacement, or dental work.
- Depending on the location and procedure of the treatment, a medical vacation can cost 50%, 30%, or even 10% of what you would pay at home.
- A blood collection tube is made up of sterile glass or plastic tube with a closure that is evacuated to create a vacuum inside the tube facilitating the draw of a predetermined volume of liquid.
- Most common application is to draw a blood sample directly from the vein and also to collect urine samples.
- The Vacutainer system consists of a double-pointed needle, a plastic holder or adapter, and a series of vacuum tubes with rubber stoppers of different colors.
- A blood transfer device is a one-piece latex-free device that meets all procedural and safety standards for blood transfer.
- In chemistry, Vacutainer heparin tubes used for plasma determinations which are spray coated.
Wednesday, September 19, 2012
Tuesday, September 18, 2012
- Ammonium fluorosilicate (also known as ammonium hexafluorosilicate, ammonium fluosilicate or ammonium silicofluoride) has the formula (NH4)2SiF6.
- It is a toxic chemical, like all salts of fluorosilicic acid.
- Ammonium silicofluoride is a water insoluble silicon source for use in oxygen-sensitive applications, such as metal production.
- In extremely low concentrations (ppm), fluoride compounds are used in health applications.
- Fluoride compounds also have significant uses in synthetic organic chemistry.
Monday, September 17, 2012
- A Industrial chemical process used to make a diverse range of products such as dyes and color intensifiers, pigments, medicinal, pesticides and organic intermediates is called Sulfonation.
- Reactions are carried out using, concentrated sulfuric acid, Oleum or sulfur tri oxide as the sulfonating agent.
- A difficult reaction to perform on an industrial scale because the reaction is rapid and highly exothermic.
- Commercial scale Sulfonation reactions require special equipment and instrumentation that allows tight control of the mole ratio of SO3 to organic and rapid removal of the heat of reaction.
- The process equipment cost is an important factor to be considered in choice of a Sulfonation process.
- A grease is a solid to semi fluid product of a thickening agent in the lubricant. We can find the application of Grease on areas where continuous supply of oil cannot be retained, such as open bearings or gears.
- Factors to be considered when selecting a suitable grease are water resistance, operating temperatures, oxidation stability etc.
- The second factor and more important, are the grease's characteristics, including viscosity and consistency.
Saturday, September 15, 2012
- Sodium Fluoroborate is an inorganic compound of the formula NaBF4,
- Sodium fluoroborate occurs as a white, water-soluble powder.
- It is used, for example in the sand casting of aluminum, in electrochemical processes, and as fluorinating agent.
- It is used as an additive in chrome, nickel & cadmium plating baths
- This chemical is used as flame retardant for cotton & rayon
- In packing of Beverages and in disposable use of tea, water and juices, thermoformed disposables are widely used.
- Different shapes are created from a process where a sheet of plastic is heated and vacuumed on top of a model/die. The die can be made up from variety of materials.
- The raw materials required are high impact poly-styrene, PVC, Polypropylene.
- A process called thermoforming is associated with manufacturing of disposable coffee cups and blister packs.
- The total investment for setting up a thermoform disposables manufacturing plant costs upto Rs.1.11 Crores.
Wednesday, September 12, 2012
- The term precast refers to the fact that the blocks are already formed and hardened before they are brought to the job site. We can find its applications from railway sleepers to bridge elements, housing and stadia.
- Precast concrete products are used in many applications like Building construction. Due to its more usable floor space and fewer columns, it provides more freedom on space utilization.
- Precast concrete does not require painting and so it is free from any corrosions. Using Precast concrete products extends the durability of building life.
- A colourless, water insoluble solid of melting point 24 °C and boiling point 259 °C. It has a floral aroma. It can be obtained from palm kernel or coconut oil fatty acids and methyl esters by reduction.
- Synonyms of Lauryl Alcohol are Dodecanol, dodecan-1-ol, dodecyl alcohol and is a fatty alcohol.
- Oxidatively stable with atmospheric oxygen under normal conditions and in the absence of light.
- In the making of surfactants, lubricating oils, pharmaceuticals, in the formation of monolithic polymers and also as a flavor enhancing food additive Lauryl alcohol plays a major role.
- Dodecanol is used as an emollient in the cosmetics.
Monday, September 10, 2012
- Tempered glass is a safety glass that is used very commonly to serve many purposes. Tempered glass has specific properties that make it ideal for many applications that could be dangerous if tempered glass was not used.
- Tempered glass is designed to be highly stronger and less likely to break than other glasses. In the event tempered glass does break, it shatters into hundreds of small, blunt fragments to prevent serious damage from harmful sharp and jagged edges.
- Tempered glass is a heat resistant, making it 4 to 5 times stronger than any other glasses and harder to break. It is often referred to as "safety glass." Tempered glass is used for car windows (side and rear), oven windows, house windows, shower doors, and coffee makers.
- A low-molecular weight carbohydrates degradation product made from starch manufactured by a process called pyrolysis.
- Dextrin are characterized by its solubility in water, viscosity, color, pH, moisture, reducing sugar value, molecular weight distribution.
- Synonyms of Dextrin are Starch Gum, Artificial Gum, Tapioca and British Gum.
- As a diluting agent for pills and capsules, as well as a thickener in creams and foam stabilizer in beer. It can also be used in baked goods, candy, gravies, pie fillings, poultry, puddings, and soups.
Friday, September 07, 2012
- Elastic tapes are required for the purpose of holding the garments tightly.
- Used in undergarments like briefs, panties, brassiers, baggies, children's dress etc.
- Also found in suitcases inside straps for better grip holding and in car seats for safety driving.
- Production process comprises types of yarn like viscose, nylon and cotton are place on creel. On preparing wrap beam is shifted to needle loom and individual threads are drawn. When the machine starts weaving, the woven tapes will come outs of the machine and finally wound on rolls. After completion of rolls are packed into polythene packs for supply.
- Thermal paper is a special fine paper that is coated with a chemical that changes color when exposed to heat.
- It is used in thermal printers and particularly in inexpensive or lightweight devices such as adding machines, cash registers, and credit card terminals
- The surface of the paper is coated with a solid-state mixture of a dye and a suitable matrix; a combination of a fluoran leuco dye and octadecylphosphonic acid
- Thermal paper is commonly used by retail organizations, restaurants, casinos, convenience stores, financial institutions, research foundations, etc. for receipt paper, atm slips, gas pump receipts, slot machine tickets and other data processing purposes.
- It is a special paper grade essential in our modern age of on demand printing and proof of purchase.
Thursday, September 06, 2012
- Mattress is one of the most important furnitures in our home. An uncomfortable or inappropriate mattress can lead to poor sleep, fatigue and a generally decreased quality of life.
- Mattresses are manufactured in four sizes: single, twin, queen and king. But, most of the mattresses today are made with inner coil springs to provide comfort and support at the same time.
- Cheap mattresses can be purchased for $200 or $300, but these tend to relatively low end and will not provide the comfort or the durability of a more expensive mattress.
Wednesday, September 05, 2012
- ROPE is used as a connecting component for lanyards, horizontal and vertical lifelines, positioning lanyards, pulley systems and some special-order, self-retracting lifelines and in many applications.
- Rope’s main advantage is that it has a better “hand” than cable or webbing. It is also less expensive than other materials. The rope is to pull heavy objects, connect objects, and bind objects together. The ropes can be classified as twisted rope, Shroud laid rope and cable laid rope.
- Polypropylene rope is otherwise called as the “plastic” rope. It's only advantage is that it can float in water without any damages caused.
- By chemical or electro-chemical plating, a thin layer of gold deposit onto the surface of another metal, mostly copper or silver (to make silver-gilt).
- Gold plating of silver is used in the manufacture of jewelry.
- In electronics, to provide a corrosion-resistant electrically conductive layer on copper in electrical connectors and in printed circuit boards gold plating is employed.
- A readymade gold plating salt is available in market in which the required proportion of the chemicals are mixed which can also be utilized for the purpose.
- Plating of gold is often found in microelectronic devices for air-bridges, heat-sinks and gold bumps for flip-chip techniques.
- Rhodinol comes in nature as a typical component of rose and geranium oils and confounded with isomers the alcohol citronellol.
- Still in the 40's of this century one assumed that rhodinol would be isomer from geraniol, or even identical to this.
- It is combustible liquid mixture of terpene alcohols with rose scent; soluble in mineral oil and alcohol; and especially used in perfumes and flavors.
- When the geranylacetone serving as a main body of the essence formula participates in burning, aroma which is naturally harmonized with the cigarette aroma can be generated without foreign smell and the rhodinol can weaken or modify the foreign smell component brought by burning of the bobbin
- Chrome oxide is the stable oxide of the chromium,it is a dark green crystalline powder insoluble in alkalis and acids.
- It is prepared from the mineral Chromite mined in southern Africa, Asia, Turkey and Cuba.
- As with other coloring agents, chrome must be milled fine enough to eliminate specking in glass or glaze.
- Chrome oxide is bassically employed in raw glazes whereas potassium dichromate is used in fritted glazes.
- From Cr2O3 becomes 2CrO3, oxygen is captured from the surroundings, the percentage is greater than 100.