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Monday, April 30, 2012

Polyhydroxyalkanoates

 Polyhydroxyalkanoates




  • Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentationof sugar or lipids. 
  • PHA are produced by the bacteria to store carbon and energy. 
  • PHA plastics are biodegradeable and are used in the production of bioplastics.
  • Polyhydroxyalkanoastes (PHAs) are naturally-occurring polymers produced by bacteria. 
  • PHA are for use in many applications, including molded goods, paper coatings, non-woven fabrics, performance additives.
  • A PHA copolymer called PHBV is less stiff and tougher, and it may be used as packaging material.



Quercetin

Site Guides: Quercetin


Quercetin is the most abundant of the flavonoids. Quercetin belongs to the flavonoids family and consist of 3 rings and 5 hydroxyl groups.
Quercetin, a member of the flavonoids family, exerts many beneficial health effects, including improvement of cardiovascular health, reducing risk for cancer, protection against osteoporosis.
Quercetin is a polyphenolic compounds that occurs in vegetables and fruits mainly as different glycosides, although the skin of the fruit/vegetable commonly contains higher amounts of the quercetin aglycone.
The most environmentally friendly solvent that could be used for extraction of quercetin is water. However, since pure water at ambient condition is too polar to be a good solvent for quercetin, we instead use water at elevated temperatures as a solvent, i.e. subcritical water.

Anthraquinone

Anthraquinone



Anthraquinone is an organic compound whose structure serves as a basic building block for a number of naturally occurring plant pigments. The compound is used in the production of dyes and as a catalyst for the production of wood pulp.

Anthraquinone is a light yellow to green crystalline ( sand-like) substance. It is used in the manufacture of dyes and paper, as a medication, and as a bird repellent for seeds.

China is a large anthraquinone producing and exporting country. Major anthraquinone producers in China include Jiangyin Changjiang Chemical Plant and Changzhou Yabang Dyestuff Co., Ltd, etc. With the anthraquinone demand of the domestic and foreign markets rising continuously, the number of anthraquinone producers in China rises year by year.

Valeraldehyde

Valeraldehyde

Valeraldehyde is a colourless liquid with a strong, pungent odour. Because of its low flash point, it is a dangerous fire hazard (ACG99). Its vapour mixes well with air, forming explosive mixtures.
Valeraldehyde is used in flavouring compounds, in resin chemistry, and as a rubber accelerator.
Valeraldehyde is also used extensively as a natural and synthetic flavoring agent.  It is used as a top note for flavor to give identity (fruity, nutty) on first impression and is a component of rose oil used to flavor foods, beverages  and  chewing  tobacco.
Valeric acid is mainly used as a chemical intermediate to manufacture flavors and perfumes, synthetic lubricants, agricultural chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. It is also used as a flavoring aid in foods.


Thursday, April 26, 2012

Propane




  • Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8, normally a gas, but compressible to a transportable liquid. 
  • A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, barbecues, portable stoves, and residential central heating.
  • A mixture of propane and butane, used mainly as vehicle fuel, is commonly known as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas). It may also contain small amounts of propylene and/or butylene. 
  • All commercial propane fuels include an odorant, almost always ethanethiol, so that people can easily smell the gas in case of a leak.

Pantothenic Acid





  • Pantothenic acid, also called pantothenate or vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin. For many animals, pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
  • Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoate and beta-alanine. Its name derives from the Greek pantothen  meaning "from everywhere" and small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in whole-grain cereals, legumes, eggs, meat, royal jelly, avocado, and yogurt.
  • The derivative of pantothenic acid, pantothenol, is a more stable form of the vitamin and is often used as a source of the vitamin in multivitamin supplements. Another common supplemental form of the vitamin is calcium pantothenate.

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Phytoalexin




  • Phytoalexins are antibiotics produced by plants when under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi
  • Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants — including vines.
  • Resveratrol is found in the skin of red grapes.Malbec has a thick skin and contains much resveratrol.
  • Vine grapes grown in cooler climates have higher resveratrol levels than those from warmer climes 
  • The varieties with most resveratrol in the wine include malbec, petite sirah, st. laurent and pinot noir.
  • Phytoalexins tend to fall into several classes including terpenoids, glycosteroids and alkaloids
  • Phytoalexins produced in plants act as toxins to the attacking organism.

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

Sterols




  • Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules. They occur naturally in plants, animals, and fungi, with the most familiar type of animal sterol being cholesterol. 
  • Cholesterol is vital to cellular function, and a precursor to fat-soluble vitamins and steroid hormones.
  • Sterols of plants are called phytosterols and sterols of animals are called zoosterols. Important zoosterols are cholesterol; notable phytosterols include campesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol. 
  • Ergosterol is a sterol present in the cell membrane of fungi, where it serves a role similar to cholesterol in animal cells.

Chlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene

                      
  • Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. This colorless, flammable liquid is a common solvent and a widely used intermediate in the manufacture of other chemicals.
  • Synonyms of chlorobenzene are Monochlorobenzene, MCB, Phenyl Chloride, Chlorobenzol, Benzene Chloride.
  • Presently it is manufactured by chlorination of benzene in the presence of a catalytic amount of Lewis acid such as ferric chloride and anhydrous aluminium chloride.
  • Other applications include use as a fiber swelling agent and dye carrier in textile processing, as a tar and grease remover in cleaning and degreasing operations, as a heat-transfer medium.

Monday, April 23, 2012

EVOH Resins


EVOH Resins

Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol, commonly abbreviated EVOH, is a formal copolymer of ethylene and vinyl alcohol. Because the latter monomermainly exists as its tautomer acetaldehyde, the copolymer is prepared by polymerization of ethylene and vinyl acetate to give the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer followed by hydrolysis.

One of the major applications for EVOH is in auto-motive fuel systems to control emissions of hydro-carbons from fuel lines and tanks.
The first and foremost producer of EVOH (ethylene vinyl-alcohol copolymer resins) under the name EVAL™ and the manufacturer of KURARISTER™ film, today the Kuraray Group consists of about 70 companies, employing around 7,000 people worldwide.

Aminocarboxylate


Aminocarboxylate


Aminopolycarboxylate chelating agents are used extensively in many domestic products and industrial processes, with the most important applications in cleaning compounds, pulp and paper manufacturing, and agriculture.

As the process for industrial production of aminocarboxylic acid salts, there is currently used generally the Strecket Process in which a glycine salt, an imiodiaacetic acid salt , a nitrilotriacetic acid salt or the like is obtained using hydrocyanic acid and formaldehyde as raw materials.


The market is witnessing emergence of many new chelating products and the transition of existing products towards newer markets and applications. Nuclear sector is one such prospective market, where chelating agents are employed to clean up nuclear waste at government sites or at nuclear power plants.

Chelating agent usage spans a large number of diverse end-use markets. Important applications include pulp and paper processing; industrial water treatment; household, institutional and industrial cleaning compounds; metal finishing; agriculture; photography; rubber processing; use in food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and toiletries; and textile treatment.

Biotin

  • Biotin is found in a wide variety of foods, most notably in liver, salmon, bananas, egg yolks, brewer’s yeast, legumes and mushrooms.
  • Biotin nourishes skin, strengthens nails and hair
  • Foods with a relatively high biotin content include Swiss chard, raw egg yolk , liver, Saskatoon berries, some vegetables, and peanuts.
  • Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails.
  • Symptoms of biotin deficiency include: Hair loss, Conjunctivitis, Dermatitis in the form of a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and genital area.
  • Biotin also assists as an enzyme in many metabolic activities such as blood sugar regulation and the metabolism of carbohydrates.

Folic Acid

Folic Acid



Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B vitamin (B9) found mostly in leafy green vegetables like kale and spinach, orange juice, and enriched grains.

Folic acid is a manmade form of folate. Folate is found naturally in some foods. Most women do not get all the folic acid they need through food alone.

In the recent times, there has been increasing hype over the benefits rendered by this vitamin from the government, media, and consumers. Moreover, it is the only B vitamin to enjoy the privilege of being mandated in countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the United States of America, Canada, Chile and the Czech Republic.

Friday, April 20, 2012

Seaweed Fertilizer




  • The term Seaweeds in this case refers only to macrophytic marine algae, both wild and cultivated, growing in saltwater.
  • The present uses of seaweeds at present are as human foods, cosmetics, fertilisers, and for the extraction of industrial gums and chemicals.
  • Seaweed contains complex carbohydrates. These stimulate microscopic soil fungi and microbes. These little garden helpers increase the availability of soil nutrients and they also play a significant role in defending against soil-based diseases.
  • The nutrients in seaweed fertiliser promote early flowering, stronger crops, and increased sugar content in fruit.
  • Seaweed is rich in nutrients like phosphorus, potassium, calcium and nitrogen. Composted seaweed also adds many micronutrients that will improve soil quality and plant health.

Aramid




  • Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.
  • They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, and as an asbestos substitute. 
  • The name is a portmanteau of "aromatic polyamide". They are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited.
  • World capacity of para-aramid production is estimated at about 41,000 tonnes/year in 2002 and increases each year by 5–10%.

Propanoic Acid

Propanoic Acid


                             
  • Propanoic acid (from 'propane', and also known as propionic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3CH2COOH. It is a clear liquid with a pungent odor. The anion CH3CH2COO- as well as the salts and esters of propanoic acid are known as propanoates (or propionates).
  • Propanoic acid has physical properties intermediate between those of the smaller carboxylic acids, formic and acetic acids, and the larger fatty acids. It is miscible with water, but can be removed from water by adding salt.
  • In industry, propanoic acid is mainly produced by the hydrocarboxylation of ethylene using nickel carbonyl as the catalyst.
  • Propionic acid produced by fermentation is widely used in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. It is used primarily for animal feed preservation, including hay, silage and grains and in human foods, mainly in baked goods and cheeses.

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

Pulverized Coal





  • The concept of burning coal that has been pulverized into a fine powder stems from the belief that if the coal is made fine enough, it will burn almost as easily and efficiently as a gas. 
  • The feeding rate of coal according to the boiler demand and the amount of air available for drying and transporting the pulverized coal fuel is controlled by computers.
  • Pulverized coal injection was developed in 19th century, but was not implemented industrially until the 1970s. Rises in the cost of coke cost due to increased global demand and thus more competition for the resource have made this method attractive to the iron producing industries and increased its value.

Carbohydrate Polymers

  • Carbohydrates are polymers of monosaccharides (a.k.a sacchraides). These polymers are called polysaccharides. A polymer is basically a large molecule that can be hydrolyzed into a generic repeating unit
  • Carbohydrate polymers are widely used in various industrial applications in foods, pharmaceuticals, textiles, paper, and environmental technology
  • Three major carbohydrate polymers are readily obtained from biomass and are commercially available. These polysaccharides are cellulose, starch, and gums.
  • Carbohydrates have six major functions within the body: Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose, Sparing the use of proteins for energy, Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis, Biological recognition processes, Flavor and Sweeteners, Dietary fiber



Tuesday, April 17, 2012

Dendritic Polymers

Dendritic Polymers


                              
  • Dendritic polymers are repetitively branched molecules. Synonymous terms for dendritic polymers include dendrimer, arborols and cascade molecules.
  • Dendrimers are a unique class of synthetic macromolecules having highly branched, three dimensional, nanoscale architecture with very low poly dispersity and high functionality.
  • Dendritic polymers are belonging to hyper-branched macromolecules. They composed of a large number of monomer units that were chemically linked together.
  • The dendritic molecules comprise arms, each of which arms is a polymer. The dendritic molecules can be synthesised by way of a reasonably small number of versatile and reliable step-wise reactions, especially chemistry reactions.

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Acitic Acid

Acetic Acid is made in large scale mainly by methanol carbonylation
An alternative green route for the production of acetic acid from renewable feedstocks is through the gasification of biomass
The biomass raw materials that have been used for gasification include rice straw, husks of rice, sorghum, wood chips, sawdust
Acetic acid provides a chemical platform serving several value chains focused on adhesives and coatings, apparel, engineering polymers, generic pharmaceuticals, oilfield chemicals and foodstuffs.

Saturday, April 14, 2012

Coal Tar Pitch





  • Liquid coal tar pitch is a black, dense hydrocarbon liquid that has a strong, aromatic coal tar odour.  It is stored at high temperatures (200 degrees C).
  • This substance is used in the aluminium smelting industry as a binder in the manufacture of carbon anodes.
  • The fumes from this hot liquid are heavier than air and tend to settle in low lying areas, until blown away by wind.
  • Coal-tar pitches are used primarily as the binder for aluminum smelting electrodes (IARC 1984). They are also used in roofing materials, to impregnate and strengthen refractory brick (for lining industrial furnaces), and in surface coatings, such as pipe-coating enamels and black varnishes used as protective coatings for industrial steelwork and as antifouling paints for boats. 

Organic Pigments




Organic pigments are substances which consist of solid particles and are insoluble in the application medium, as described in the definitions of standard DIN EN 55943. Thus they are differentiated from dyestuffs which also consist of solid particles but are soluble in the end application medium.
The production of organic pigments takes place in industrial-scale plants, where all aspects of occupational health and safety and environmental protection are reliably met. 
All pigments which are used in paints and coatings systems have various particle sizes and specific surfaces due to their chemical structure and in order to achieve the desired optical and application properties. This means that different dispersant types and various amounts are needed in order to guarantee a complete covering of the pigment surface with the dispersing agent.  
The outlook for the pigments business appears strong in the light of the improving growth prospects for the paints and inks industry in the domestic as well as the global context.

Oxo Chemicals




OXO means process by adding synthesis gas to an olefin to obtain an aldehyde using the ydroformylation reaction and then hydrogenating the aldehyde to obtain the alcohol.

Key oxo alcohols sold in commerce include t n-Butanol, 2-Ethylhexanol, Isononyl alcohol, and Isodecyl alcohol.


Oxea is a global manufacturer of Oxo Intermediates and Derivatives such as alcohols, polyols, carboxylic acids, specialty esters and amines.

Oxo industry growth continues to be strong, consistent with the broader global chemical industry development.

Polyaromatics


  • This 3D animation shows how the heat from tobacco combustion causes molecules to fragment into unstable arrangements, which recombine to form carcinogenic compounds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also known as poly-aromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, are potent atmospheric pollutants that consist of fused aromatic rings and do not contain heteroatoms or carry substituents.
  • Naphthalene is the simplest example of a PAH.
  • PAHs occur in oil, coal, and tar deposits, and are produced as byproducts of fuel burning
  • The term "PAH" refers to compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  • PAHs are highly lipophilic and therefore very soluble in organic solvents.

Aliphatic Polyamides

  • A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers of amides joined by peptide bonds. 
  • They can occur both naturally and artificially, examples being proteins, such as wool and silk, and can be made artificially through step-growth polymerization or solid-phase synthesis, examples being nylons, aramids, and sodium poly(aspartate).
  • According to composition of their main chain, polyamides are classifieds as aliphatic, semi-aromatic and aromatic. Examples of Aliphatic type polyamides are PA6(Nylon 6) and PA 66(Nylon 6,6).
  • Nylon 6 is used as thread in bristles for toothbrushes, surgical sutures, and strings for acoustic and classical musical instruments, including guitars, violins, violas, and cellos. 

Friday, April 13, 2012

Construction Induustries

The number one business potencial in Construction activities...explore at Chennai Trade centre
"INDIA INTERNATIONAL CONMATS 2012" is an international expo is conceived to bring together the powers,which render life to the art of construction under one roof.
Highlights:
  • Optimum Networking Opportunities.
  • Large number of exhibitors.
  • Participation from leading brands.
  • Increases the potential back round.
  • Exclusive show for construction material industry

Composite Materials

Composite Materials - expo @ Chennai Trade Centre
Business Opportunities ... explore 

Entrepreneurs can change the world - Grasshopper

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Polyether sulfones


  • Poly(ether sulfones) PES for short, are high performance polymers.
  • The most popular is one made by Union Carbide called UdelTM.
  • Poly(ether sulfones) act a lot like polycarbonates, but they're a lot more heat resistant.
  • Poly(ether sulfones) also can stand up well to water and steam, so they're used to make things like cookware and medical products that need to be sterilized between uses.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

Indian Eyewear Market - Rs.43000 Crore by 2015

The size of the Indian Eyewear market is set to more than double by 2015 and poised to touch Rs.43000 crore.The eyewear products are contact lens, sunglass,intraocular lense,Lasik lens, Lens cleaning solutions, spectacle lens, spectacle frames etc
The contactlens market in India is said to be growing at the rate of 25%. About 45 Lakh pairs of contactlenses sold per year and the market is estimated to be 700 Crore

Monday, April 09, 2012

Butyl Glycol

  • Ethylene glycol is a clear, colourless liquid with a syrupy consistency.
  • Ethylene glycol can be made industrially by reacting water with ethylene oxide
  • Ethylene glycol is used as an antifreeze, engine coolant and in the manufacture of polyester fibres and plasticisers
  • Butyl Glycol is also a starting material in the production of plasticisers by the reaction of phthalic anhydride.
  • Butyl glycol is produced by reacting ethylene oxide and normal butanol (n-butanol) using a catalyst. If the ratio of ethylene oxide to n-butanol is greater than one then di- and tri- ethylene glycol monoethers are also produced.

Saturday, April 07, 2012

Adiponitrile Plant 100,000 TPY | Used Adiponitrile Plant | Surplus Adiponitrile Plant | Phoenix Equipment

Adiponitrile Plant 100,000 TPY | Used Adiponitrile Plant | Surplus Adiponitrile Plant | Phoenix Equipment
Interesting project....
  • The major route for the synthesis of adiponitrile (ADN) involves electrosynthesis, starting from acrylonitrile (AN) in an electrochemical reactor ...

  • Adiponitrile is consumed in the production of HMDA.

  • considerable research & patenting activities are in progress
  • Thursday, April 05, 2012

    Dimethyl Terephthalate

    Dimethyl Terephthalate







    • Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO2CH3)2. It is the diester formed from terephthalic acid and methanol. It is a white solid that melts to give a distillable colourless liquid.
    • DMT is used in the production of polyesters, including polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polytrimethylene terephthalate.
    • It is a building block for an assortment of products from X-ray and video films to polyester fibers and electrical capacitors. 
    • Dimethyl terephthalate is recovered from polymer mixtures containing polymers of terephthalic acid & glycol & a chloride polymer, by adding base to neutralize the hydrochloric acid formed by the degradation of the chloride polymer.

    Acrylic Acid from Glycerin


    Acrylic acid is derived presently from petroleum and is an important monomer in the industrial manufacture of plastics and other polymers. An alternate source of acrylic acid is in the bacterial fermentation of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) and the subsequent oxidation of 3-HPA to acrylic acid.
    One route of transformation of glycerol is its conversion to acrolein by the dehydration of this by-product. Acrolein is used as raw material for the
    production of acrylic acid, medicines, detergents, acrylic acid esters and fiber treatments among others.
    Glycerol is a raw material derived from biomass; it has high oxygen content and being thermally unstable and can be transformed in oxygenated chemicals by deoxygenating processes.

    Copolyester Ether


    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE), sometimes referred to as thermoplastic rubbers, are a class of copolymers or a physical mix of polymers (usually a plastic and a rubber) which consist of materials with both thermoplastic and elastomeric properties.
    Thermoplastic polyamides elastomers (COPA) consist of a regular linear chain of rigid polyamide segments interspaced with flexible polyether segments. They are basically segmented block copolymers having general structure.
    Blends of Polycarbonate and thermoplastic copolyether ester elastomer (COPE) were made using a single screw extruder. The blend with 20 wt% of COPE gave optimum tensile properties. The elongation and strength at break were higher for this blend composition.
    In commercial applications, COPEs can replace a variety of conventional materials, such as metal, cast polyurethane, leather, and rubber.

    Tuesday, April 03, 2012

    Now, coconut plucking turns hi-tech job

    Now, coconut plucking turns hi-tech job
    Great....least investment....the best Service enterprise..!

    Polyanhydrides

    • Polyanhydrides are a class of biodegradable polymers characterized by anhydride bonds that connect repeat units of the polymer backbone chain.
    • Their main application is in the medical device and pharmaceutical industry.
    • In vivo, polyanhydrides degrade into non-toxic diacid monomers that can be metabolized and eliminated from the body.
    • Owing to their safe degradation products, polyanhydrides are considered to be biocompatible.

    Sodium Hexametaphosphate


    • Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is a hexamer of composition (NaPO3)6
    • Properties Of Sodium hexametaphosphate are White granules or powder and odourless. Easily soluble in water.
    • SHMP hydrolyzes in aqueous solution, particularly under acidic conditions, to sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium orthophosphate.
    • Used in the manufacturing of detergents, water softening agent in solution for printing, dyeing, and boilers, water treatment, paper making, textiles and tanning.
    • Sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is used as an acidity regulator, emulsifier, humectant, raising agent, sequestrant, stabilizer and thickener.

    Monday, April 02, 2012

    Glycol Ethers

    Glycol Ethers


                           



    • Glycol ethers are a group of solvents based on alkyl ethers of ethylene glycol commonly used in paints. These solvents typically have a higher boiling point, together with the favorable solvent properties of lower molecular weight of ethers and alcohols.
    • The glycol ether gives the composition the ability to penetrate into the cracks between two seized or corroded elements and dissolve any rust or corrosion parts.
    • A penetrating and lubricating composition consisting of a silicone lubricant dissolved in a glycol ether carrier having a very low surface tension.
    • Grignard reagents prepared in the presence of diethylene glycol dibutyl ether have improved yields and stability, including storage stability, at room temperature.