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Thursday, March 28, 2013

Jaggery from Sugar Cane

Here is an interesting project for Rural Areas..
For producing 200 tonnes of jaggery the unit requires 2000 tonnes of sugar cane. The extraction of juice from sugar cane works out to about 45%. There shall not be any problem in availability of proper variety of sugarcane from the cane producing states. Other ingredients like Soda/ Bhindi (Lady's finger) are all locally available. The unit will also require jute gunny bags for packing. The price of raw material and packing material at full capacity utilization is estimated to be Rs. 12.00 lakhs per year. At 60% capacity in 1st year the cost works out to Rs7.20 lakhs
As against the rated capacity of 200 tonnes the capacity utilization in first year is taken as 60%. Assuming a sale price of Rs.13,000/- per ton the annual sales revenue at rated capacity is Rs.26.00 lakhs. The same at 60% utilization is Rs.15.60 lakhs.

Wednesday, March 27, 2013



  • A silvery white actinide metal with symbol Cf having atomic number 98 and also possess a radioactive characteristics.
  • Californium was named after it was discovered in California.
  • Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis(PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals.
  • Californium-252 radio isotopic neutron source capsules have been used for Brachytherapy treatment of radio resistant tumors.
  • Californium is produced in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators.



  • Holmium was discovered by Delafontaine and Soret in 1878 AD. It is a soft silvery metallic element, which is found in the lanthanide series of inner transition metals in Group III a of the periodic table.
  • Holmium occurs with the rare earths in their ores. It is separated from other rare earths by ion exchange chromatography. It is prepared by reducing the anhydrous chloride with calcium .which is stable in air. It has unusual magnetic properties. It is used in the filters used for the calibration of the wavelength settings in UV spectrophotometers.
  • It is usually commercially extracted from monazite using ion exchange techniques. Its compounds in nature, and in nearly all of its laboratory chemistry, are trivalently oxidized, containing Ho(III) ions. Trivalent holmium ions have fluorescent properties similar to many other rare earth ions (while yielding their own set of unique emission light lines), and holmium ions are thus used in the same way as some other rare earths in certain laser and glass colorant applications.

Tuesday, March 26, 2013

Clays are very useful materials !

Clalys are very important and useful industrial raw material...
There are six types of Clay - Ball clay, bentonite, common clay, fire clay, fuller's earth, and kaolin
Mineral composition, plasticity, color, absorption qualities, firing characteristics, and clarification properties are a few of the characteristics used to distinguish between the different clay types.   Major  markets for these clays are as follows:   sanitaryware and ceramic tile for ball clays; absorbents, drilling mud, foundry sand bonding agent, and iron ore pelletizing for bentonite; brick, lightweight aggregate, and portland cement clinker for common clay and shale; refractories for fire clay; absorbents for fuller's earth; and paper and refractory markets for kaolin.


  • Samarium is a chemical element with atomic number 62 and symbol Sm. it a hard, silvery white metal of the lanthanide series.
  • It has a bright silver lustre as well as is reasonably stable in air. It ignites in air at 150°C.
  • It is one of the rare earth elements used to make carbon arc lights which are used in the motion picture industry for studio lighting and projector lights.
  • It makes up about 1% of Misch metal, a material that is used to make flints for lighters.
  • This metal is available commercially so it is not normally necessary to make it in the laboratory, which is just and it is difficult to isolate as the pure metal.

Nicotine Sulphate

  • Nicotine Sulphate is an insecticide of plant origin.
  • Nicotine Sulphate is a salt of Nicotine and sulfuric acid.
  • Nicotine Sulphate arises from the neutralization of nicotine with sulfuric acid.
  • Nicotine Sulfate is an clear colorless aqueous solution
  • Nicotine Sulphate extensively used for fruit and vegetable gardens.
  • Nicotine Sulphate being washable in water does not have any toxic remnants after usage; hence it is an extremely safe pesticide.

Monday, March 25, 2013

Crosslinked Polyethylene Resin


  • Crosslinking polyethylene changes the polymer from a thermoplastic to a thermoelastic polymer.
  • Once a material is  fully crosslinked, polyethylene tends not to melt but merely to become more flexible at higher temperatures.
  • A flexible, durable, reliable plastic piping product for use in plumbing, residential fire safety and radiant heating & cooling systems.
  • Polyethylene can be crosslinked by silane method used for various interesting applications.
  • Finds applications in packaging and electrical insulation & rotomoulding applications.

Friday, March 22, 2013

Silk Fibroin


  • Fibroin is a type of protein created by Bombyx mori (silkworms) in the production of silk.
  • It is a promising scaffold material for ligament because it is a strong biocompatible protein-based polymer that exhibits slow degradation rates.
  • Its films composed of silk I structure were first prepared by slow drying process.
  • Raw materials of fibroin is silk.
  • It can be spun at rates as fast as 10 ml/hr using this electrospinning method as well as it will be extracted from the cocoons of Bombyx mori silkworms.


quilt block for Bohrium

  • Bohrium is a chemical element with symbol Bh, Atomic Number 107, Atomic Weight 274, Electron Configuration: [Rn] 7s2 5f14 6d5.
  • In the periodic table of the elements, Bohrium is a d-block transactinide element.
  • Bohrium is probably silvery or metallic gray.
  • Bohrium is an artificially produced radioactive element. It is harmful due to its radioactivity.
  • Bohrium is not found free in the environment, since it is a synthetic element.

Thursday, March 21, 2013


  • A transuranic radioactive chemical element with silvery appearance that has the symbol Am and atomic number 95.
  • Americium is a man-made radioactive metal that exists as a solid under normal conditions.
  • The process called nuclear transmutation which is nothing but the americium is first separated and converted by neutron bombardment in special reactors to short-lived nuclides.
  • Americium also is used as a radiation source in medical diagnostic devices and in research. 
  • In household applications, commonly used in minute amounts in smoke detectors as an ionization source.
  • In space-related application, americium is a fuel for space ships with nuclear propulsion.


  • Solanesol is a polyisoprenoid alcohol found in tobacco leaves & is an intermediate compound in the synthesis of several Nutraceutical products.
  • Solanesol is rich in Coenzyme Q10 -- a physiologically active substance with high pharmaceutical value.
  • Three extraction methods are used for Solanesol recovery which are heat-reflux extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction.
  • Solanesol derivatives are also known to prevent ulcer and liver disease. 

Tuesday, March 19, 2013



  • Praseodymium is a rare earth metal from the group of light rare earth element that has the atomic number 59 and symbol Pr.
  • Praseodymium is a soft, malleable, ductile, silvery metal and it is one of the lanthanide rare earth metals.
  • It can be prepared by several methods, such as by calcium reduction of the anhydrous chloride of fluoride and It is reacts with water to form praseodymium hydroxide plus hydrogen gas.
  • It is not found free in nature but is found in a number of minerals mainly monazite and bastnasite.
  • It has 32 isotopes whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers 121 to 154. naturally occurring praseodymium consists of its one stable isotope, 141Pr.

A Handbook for New entrepreneurs

There is a useful information published in the MSME Chennai pages ..about what project to select..!
  • Look up for all possible trade publications and secondary data.
  • Consult with specialists/ resource persons from MSME-DIs, SSIDC, CSIR, NRDC, DoIs, APCTT etc. Extensive use of Internet is also suggested.
  • Undertake a market survey for the proposed product/services proposed to be manufactured/ service rendered.
  • Assess technology sources, raw materials availability, suppliers of required machinery & equipments. Total investment required for the project, promoter's contribution need to be estimated. Analyse your personal strengths and weaknesses are other considerations.
  • Assess your capacity to invest from own sources and resourcefulness to offer collateral security.
read more on tips to Entrepreneurs here

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)

  • A transparent thermoplastic which is an ester of methacrylic acid belongs to acrylic family of resins.
  • A strong and lightweight material possess good impact strength higher than glass and filters UV lights.
  • PMMA, the most common methacrylic polymer, is made into sheets by one of three methods; batch cell, continuous or extrusion.
  • It has been sold under different names such as Plexiglas, Lucite, Perspex, Oroglas, Altuglas.
  • Polymerization Mechanisms of producing PMMA are emulsion polymerization, solution polymerization and bulk polymerization.


  • Lutetium is the last of the series of the lanthanide elements and it is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number is  71. It was isolated separately & independently by two chemists, Welsbach and Urbain.
  • Common compounds of lutetium are lutetium aluminium garnet, lutetium bromide, lutetium chloride, lutetium fluoride, lutetium iodide, lutetium oxide, lutetium sulfide.
  • It is a silvery white rare earth metal and it is also one of the least abundant lanthanides, however it is still more abundant on earth than silver or gold.
  •  Lutetium is not found free in nature but is found in a number of minerals, mainly monazite and the  Pit also produced by the reduction of the anhydrous fluoride with calcium metal.

Tuesday, March 12, 2013

Sulphur Black Dyeing - The problem & Solution

Black colour on garments, jeans etc have a special place among the Youth and others too...sulphure black dyeing is generally used to impart black colours..
  • Sulfur dyes are water insoluble compounds that have to be converted during the dyeing process first into a water-soluble form and then to a reduced form to enable fixing of the dye on the fiber to be dyed
  • Converting the original dye into water solubility is by treatment with an aqueous solution of highly polluting sodium sulfide. This causes an increase in the sulfide content of the mill's effluent. On account of its toxicity the State Pollution Control Board prescribes a limit of 2ppm for sulfide in the treated effluent. Complying with these standards was one of the major problems
  • After dyeing the fabric, the dye is converted back to insoluble form with acidified dichromates to prevent washing out of the dye from fabric; dichromates are toxic too
  • Regulations are in place to enforce pollution control in almost all the countries including India
  • Chemical Substitution of these chemicals has been done and clean production was achieved and pollution control reached
  • Read more here

    Friday, March 08, 2013

    Orithazh Thamarai

    • Botanical name of Orithazh Thamarai is Hybanthus Enneaspermus which is a perennial herb or small shrub to 60 cm high, smooth or hairy. 
    • Leaves are linear to lance-like, 1-5 cm long, margins recurved to revolute, occasionally flat; stipules acuminate, 1-4 mm long. 
    • Whole plant is used for Medicinal purposes which is dried in shade & powdered. The teaspoon of this powder is then mixed in milk and taken in the mornings and evenings. This strengthens the body and helps in regaining the lost vitality.
    • The plant is reported to possess tonic, diuretic and demulcent properties. The leaves decoction mixed with oil used in preparing a cooling liniment for the headache.



    • Dysprosium is a metallic chemical element in the lanthanide group of the periodic table of elements with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66.
    • Dysprosium and holmium have the highest magnetic strengths of the elements and especially at low temperatures.
    • It is a soft and silvery rare earth element used in nuclear research. It reacts with cold water and rapidly dissolves in acids.
    • It never encountered as the free element, but is found in many minerals and it has also been considered for use in diesel engine fuel injectors.
    • This type of metal is available commercially so it is not normally necessary to make it in the laboratory and it which is just as well as it is difficult to isolate as the pure metal. 


    • Europium is a chemical element with the symbol Eu, Atomic Number 63, Atomic Weight 151.964, Melting Point 1095 K (822°C or 1512°F), Boiling Point 1802 K (1529°C or 2784°F).
    • Europium is a soft silvery metal.
    • Europium has been identified spectroscopically in the sun and certain stars.
    • Europium is one of the less abundant rare-earth elements.
    • Europium is never found in nature as the free element, but there are many elements containing Europium.

    Thursday, March 07, 2013

    Exporting Soyameal to Iran

    Business Opportunity NOW

     Iran’s worldwide imports of soyameal are close to 2.2 million tonnes annually.

    ... This year, Iran will procure higher supplies of Indian soyameal — estimated at 0.8 million tonnes by March 2013 and 0.75 million tonnes during the leaner season of April-September 2013.
    The Indo-Iran bilateral rupee payment arrangement, which now provides for 100 per cent rupee trade, will ensure substantial diversion of trade to India with an added pull for soyameal.
    Iran has to cover its demand of meal for its livestock and has few sourcing options other than India

    The soyabean industry, which has flourished in Madhya Pradesh, has been insulated from any direct or indirect policy intervention
    by the Centre, unlike wheat, rice, maize, pulses, edible oil.
    Authorisation of “debit advice” to UCO Bank for effecting payment is received from Iranian counterparts within 7-10 days, subject to the documentation being compliant with terms of letter of credit.

    Here is something interesting - Pulses

    Have you seen this in news item?...
    Govt suffers Rs 875 cr loss on pulses import
    New Delhi, March 4: The government has suffered a loss of Rs 875 crore on the imports of pulses during the last three years mainly due to reasons differences in the domestic and international prices, Parliament was informed on Monday.
    "Due to the differential between domestic prices and international prices and exchange rate fluctuations, losses to the tune of Rs 875 crore were incurred in the last three years. These factors are well beyond the control of importing agencies," Commerce and Industry Minister Anand Sharma said in a written reply to the Lok Sabha.
    Imports are affected through designated state trading enterprises - STC, MMTC, NAFED and PEC, he said, adding that pulses imports are undertaken by the government on account of shortage in domestic supply.
    On the question that what corrective measures the government has taken in this regard, Sharma said: "The schemes for 15 per cent reimbursement of losses for import of pulses for PDS have been discontinued".
    In another reply, Sharma said that India is not a party to a plurilateral discussions on international services agreement (ISA).
    "These discussions are at a part of the WTO Doha Round process," he said, adding countries like the US, Australia, EU, Canada, Japan, Pakistan and Israel have been exploring a plurilateral approach to ISA.
    He said that India has also decided "not to join the negotiations" for the proposed broadening the scope of Information Technology Agreement (ITA).
    Some of the developed countries like the US, EU and Japan have proposed a broadening the scope of ITA, which is being referred as ITA-2, under which customs duty would be bound at zero.
    "India's experience with the ITA-1 has not been encouraging as it almost wiped out the IT industry from India.
    After examining the matter in consultation with the nodal ministry - the department of electronics and information technology - and other stakeholders, it has been decided, for the present, not to join the negotiations as it will not be in the national interest," he added.

    Wednesday, March 06, 2013


    • The largest discount retailer in the world and started out as a small chain of stores in rural towns.
    • Wal-Mart has 8,500 stores in 15 countries, under 55 different names.
    • There is a good business opportunity for Industries, farmers, traders in India to become vendors to Walmart.But to corner the opportunity, one needs to understand the supply chain management involved
    • Wal-Mart turned to technology, first for collecting and analyzing sales data and then for transmitting orders to suppliers with electronic data interchange.
    • While comparing with competing retail outlets, Wal-Marts sell a wide array of products at lower prices.
    • Wal-Mart is a Spreading business to more than one country & profitable but requires high expertise and a strong financial.

    Tuesday, March 05, 2013


    • Terbium is a metallic chemical element which is classified in the rare earth elements, also known as lanthanides, of the periodic table of elements.
    • China is the source of much of the world's terbium. Like other rare earth elements, terbium is comparatively well distributed across the Earth, but it is not widely used; most consumers do not interact with terbium, although they may own some products with terbium components.
    •  It is not found in a pure form in nature, but it can be recovered from an assortment of minerals.
    • Terbium is isolated, it is silvery gray and relatively soft and easy to work.

    Saturday, March 02, 2013

    Recycling Business Plans

    • A recycling business is defined as the recovery, reuse and remanufacture of materials from waste products/materials.
    • Companies can be involved in collecting, processing, manufacturing, reusing or composting these recovered materials.
    • Primary types of recovered materials are paper, plastic, metal, glass, textiles etc.
    • The increasing demand for various recycled products in many countries also opens up new prospects for the development of the recycling industry.
    • Recycling-based manufacturing can involve complex and expensive technology, but it can also be low-tech and labor intensive, providing a variety of employment opportunities.



    • Promethium is a radioactive chemical element with the symbol Pm and atomic number 61 and It salts has a pink or red colour that colours the surroundings air with a pale blue-green light.
    • Promethium is useful as a beta source for thickness gauges. It is also used in atomic batteries for spacecraft and guided missiles.
    • Promethium is harmful due to its radioactivity.
    • Promethium has 29 whose half-lives are known, with mass numbers from 130 to 158. Promethium has no naturally occurring isotopes.
    • Its longest lived isotopes are 145Pm with a half-life of 17.7 years and 147Pm, with a half-life of 2.6234 years.


    • Dubnium is a chemical element with the symbol Db , Electronic configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2, Atomic number 105, Atomic mass 261.9 g.mol -1.
    • Dubnium is harmful due to its radioactivity.
    • Dubnium is a highly radioactive metal.
    • Dubnium is a radioactive synthetic metal and has only been produced in tiny amounts.
    • Dubnium is of research interest only.
    • The atomic weight of nine known isotopes range from 255 to 263, the longest-lived isotope, Dubnium 268 has a half-life of 32 hours.
    • Dubnium is not found free in the environment, it is a synthetic element.

    Friday, March 01, 2013


    • Curium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Cm, Electron Configuration Rn 5f7 6d2 7s2, Atomic number 96, Discovered 1944, Melting point 1,347°C, Atomic mass 247 u.
    • Curium is a hard, brittle, radioactive silvery metal.
    • Curium is harmful due to its radioactivity.
    • Curium is probably present in uranium ores.
    • Curium-242 and curium-244 are used in the space program as a heat source for compact thermionic and thermoelectric power generation.