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Friday, August 31, 2012


  • Aminopyridine refer to following chemical compounds: 2-Aminopyridine, 3-Aminopyridine , 4-Aminopyridine.
  • An organic compound with the chemical formula C5H4N–NH2. The molecule is one of the three isomeric amines of pyridine.
  • 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a voltage-gated, fast potassium channel blocker capable of improving axonal conduction by facilitating the propagation of action potentials in demyelinated nerve fibers.
  • It is used primarily as a research tool, in characterizing subtypes of potassium channel, and has also been used to manage some of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. 



  • Chlorination of waste water is the application of chlorine to a wastewater to accomplish some definite purpose.  
  • The purpose of chlorination may not always be disinfection and may, in fact, involve odor control or some other objective which will be noted.
  • Chlorine may be applied in two general ways, gaseous and liquid. 
  • In general, the effective chemical form of chlorine that either destroys the microbe or acts against odor, etc., is the same.  
  • Gaseous forms of chlorine are generally first dissolved in water prior to addition to the waste water stream, while liquid forms of chlorine (called hypochlorites) are sold in the form of water soluble salts.

Thursday, August 30, 2012



  • 2-vinylpyridine is a chemical compound used by the chemical industry for various uses;The majority of the material is used by the tire industry. 
  • 2-Vinylpyridine  is  a monomer  that  is  kept with  an inhibitor  incorporated  to reduce  the  risk  of  hazardous  autopolymerization. 
  • A small amount of data  already  exists the hazards  of  2-Vinylpyridine.  
  • It is  known  to  be  corrosive  to  tissues,  flammable,  and  acutely  toxic by  oral  and  dermal  routes. 
  • It  has  an  extremely  low threshold  and a strongly disagreeable  odor.

Hypodermic needle

  • Hypodermic needles (sometimes known as ''Hypodermic syringes'') are used for many applications right from administering shots to drawing blood. The needles are long, hollow cylinders which has a puncturing point at the tip to pierce the skin of the patient.
  • Hypodermic syringes (means ‘under the skin’) are also used to extract liquid such as blood from the body.
  • Hypodermic needles can be classified by the bevel and gauge of the needle.
  • Hypodermic syringe was invented by "Charles Gabriel Pravaz (1791-1853), French surgeon, and Alexander Wood (1817-1884), Scottish physician. Later, Roehr Products introduced a plastic hypodermic needle which is disposable called the Monoject.
Cadmium salts

  • The Chemical Division consists of a range of companies involved in the chemistry and metallurgy of non-ferrous metals (zinc, lead, nickel and cadmium salts).
  • Cadmium salts, is a combination with nickel, are most widely used in the field of rechargeable batteries.
  • It is also involved in the recycling sector, processing metal-based waste such as galvanizing residues and Ni/cd and Li-ion batteries.
  • They are used in industrial applications where absolute reliability is needed electronic telecommunications planes , equipment , trains, etc. 

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Acrylic Paint

  • A painting medium which developed that combine the properties of both water media and oil painting.
  • Acrylic paints are composed of pigments suspended in a acrylic emulsion. Acrylics are thinned with water and can be mixed with gels and pastes to create textural effects. 
  • Among available paints it having capability of quick drying, forming a hard plastic. 
  • Sometimes it mix with an acrylic retarder in to the paint to slow the drying process.These are well suited for building transparencies , rather than for painting that requires delicate control and blending.

Nitrogen Trifluoride

Nitrogen Trifluoride

  • Nitrigen trifluoride chamber clean is used to provide fluorion or nitrogen tri fluoride source.
  • Nitrogen trifluoride is a colorless , stable, and toxic gas which has been used as a fluorine source for high energy chemical lasers, it is prepared by fluorine because it is easy to handling at ambient
  • Nitrogen trifluoride also used in the fluorination of fluorocarbon olefins.
  • In semiconductor fabrication, nitrogen trifluoride is usefull for plasma or cleaning of CVD reactors.
  • NF3 is also a selective reagent for silicon dioxide etching.

Tuesday, August 28, 2012

Antimony trioxide

  • Antimony trioxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O3 it is the most important commercial compound of antimony. 
  • It is found in nature as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite.
  • Like most polymeric oxides, Sb2O3 dissolves in aqueous solutions only with hydrolysis
  • When used as a flame retardant, antimony trioxide is often used in combination with halogenated compounds. Antimony trioxide is used as a synergist to enhance the activity of the halogenated flame retardant

Monday, August 27, 2012

Baby bloomer suits

  • Baby bloomer suits are knitted for children as a dress material. These knitted bloomer suits have taken the place of other textile items as these are available in very attractive designs and colours and are easy to wash.
  • There are number of units engaged in the manufacturing of knitting Baby suits, but even then the demand of these suits during the summer season is increasing day by day as these are cheap and attractive.
  • These item suits to the each and every pocket as these are available in low as well as high prices, depending upon the quality of the fabric, designing and workmanship of the product.

Piezo-Ceramic Products

  • Piezo ceramics are fundamentally very simple to use and integrate; their compact size even makes them suitable for integration into so-called labs-on a-chip.
  • Simple piezo ceramic disks or rings aremounted onto a metal or silicon disk and, as the most compact bender element, thus control the opening or closing of diaphragm pumps or valves.
  • PI's division for piezo-electric ceramic materials and components - offers a wide selection of piezoceramic components and materials based on modified PZT (lead zirconate titanate) and barium titanate, as well as lead-free piezo ceramics and custom tailored ceramics for many applications. 
  • Piezoelecetric components may be used as actuators, sensors, generators and transducers.

Friday, August 24, 2012

Nylon 6,10

  • Nylon 6 10, 10 is made from decanedioic acid and 1, 6 diaminohexane.
  • Nylon-6,10 (PA610) is semicrystalline polyamide commonly used in monofilament form in applications such as bristles and brushes. 
  • Due to its low moisture absorption compared to other nylons, it retains its properties better when wet.
  • All nylons are susceptible to hydrolysis, especially by strong acids, a reaction essentially the reverse of the synthetic reaction shown above. The molecular weight of nylon products so attacked drops fast, and cracks form quickly at the affected zones. 

Calcium glubionate

  • Calcium glubionate is used to prevent and to treat calcium deficiencies.
  • Calcium glubionate is commonly prescribed for Hypocalcemia
  • Calcium is a mineral that is found naturally in foods.
  • Calcium is necessary for many normal functions of the body, especially bone formation and maintenance
  • It is used to ensure an adequate intake of calcium during important periods of bone growth such as in childhood, during pregnancy and while breast-feeding.
  • It is used to prevent and to treat calcium deficiencies
  • Data centre

    • A building or portion of a building whose primary function is to house a computer room and its support areas with guaranteed regulated power (full back up), a high bandwidth Internet connection, physical and network security, besides 24x7 monitoring and full technical support.
    • The main functions of a data center are to centralize and consolidate information technology (IT) resources, house network operations, facilitate e-business and to provide uninterrupted service to mission-critical data processing operations.
    • A data center (sometimes spelled datacenter) is a centralized repository, either physical or virtual, for the storage, management, and dissemination of data and information organized around a particular body of knowledge or pertaining to a particular business.

    Thursday, August 23, 2012

    Sodium Iodide


    • A white, crystalline salt with chemical formula NaI and used in the field of radiation detection, therapy of iodine deficiency & in the Finkelstein reaction as a reactant.
    • It is obtained as a product between reaction of iodine and sodium hydroxide.
    • In polymerase chain reactions, NaI helpful in conversion of an alkyl chloride into an alkyl iodide. This relies on the insolubility of sodium chloride in acetone to generate the reaction.
    • The principle of Scintillation detector is the use of a special material which  scintillates when radiation interacts with it. The most common type of material is a type of salt called sodium-iodide.



    • 1,2,4-Triazole is one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, called triazoles, which have a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms.
    • 1,2,4-Triazole is a basic aromatic heterocycle. 
    • 1,2,4-Triazole derivatives find use in a wide variety of applications, most notably as antifungals such as fluconazole and itraconazole.
    • 1,2,4-Triazoles can be prepared using the Einhorn-Brunner reaction or the Pellizzari reaction.
    • 1,2,4-Triazole, triazole alanine, triazole acetic acid, triazole pyruvic acid and triazole lactic acid are the common metabolites derived from triazole-containing fungicides that act by inhibiting sterol synthesis.

    Wednesday, August 22, 2012


    • Monoethylamine(MEA) like some other small primary amines is a good solvent for lithium metal, giving the ion and the solvated electron. 
    • Evaporation of monoethylamine(MEA) solutions, gives back lithium metal. 
    • Such solutions are used for the reduction of unsaturated organic compounds, such as naphthalenes and alkynes. 
    • Monoethylamine(MEA) is a precursor to many herbicides including atrazine and simazine
    • Using submerged jet impingement experiments critical wall shear stresses for initiation of flow induced localized corrosion (FILC) were evaluated for the system carbon steel/aqueous polysulfide containing monoethylamine 

    Tuesday, August 21, 2012

    Retinal Implant

    • A retinal implant is a biomedical implant technology currently being developed by a number of private companies and research institutions worldwide. Retinal implant is an electrode/ photo electrode array that is implanted adjacent to the retina. 
    • The implant is meant to partially restore useful vision to people who have lost their vision due to degenerative eye conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa or macular degeneration.
    • There are two types of retinal implants currently in clinical trials: Epiretinal Implants (on the retina) and Subretinal Implants (behind the retina). 
    • Retinal implants provide subject with low resolution images by electrically stimulating retinal cells. Such images may be sufficient for restoring specific visual abilities, such as light perception and object recognition.

    • Metaclean is natural low foaming liquid spray wash cleaner specially designed to give performance over wide range of temperature & pressure on ferrous and non-ferrous metals within production Engineering. 
    • Metaclean is suitable for use in wide range of Industry 
    • Spray and Intensive flood washing machine
    • The metaclean range incorporates special cleaners, biocides, corrosion inhibitors and emulsion conditioners which are designed to compliment, and be accessories to, the wire and tube drawing lubricants

    Collapsible Metal Tubes

    • Collapsible metal tubes from which a paste stored therein is squeezed when the body portion is subject to plastic deformation by pressure have been used to store various drugs and cosmetics.
    • In 1841 the American portrait painter John Goffe Rand invented the squeezable or collapsible metal tube.
    • It comprises a body portion composed of metal walls susceptible of plastic information, and a shoulder portion and neck portion connected to one end of the body portion. The other end of the body portion of the collapsible metal tube is sealed by folding and tightening and neck portion is openably closed with a cap.

    Nitrogen Trifluoride

    Nitrogen Trifluoride

    • Nitrogen trifluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NF3, this nitrogen-fluorine compound is a colorless, toxic, odourless, nonflammable gas. 
    • It finds increasing use as an etchant in microelectronics.
    • Nitrogen trifluoride is used in the plasma etching of silicon wafers.
    • Today nitrogen trifluoride is predominantly employed in the cleaning of the PECVD chambers in the high volume production of liquid crystal displays and silicon-based thin film solar cells. 
    • In these applications NF3 is initially broken down in situ, by a plasma. 

    Monday, August 20, 2012


    • Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae.
    • The perch, of which there are three species in different geographical areas, lend their name to a large order of vertebrates the Perciformes, from the Greek perke meaning spotted, and the Latin forma meaning shape. 
    • Many species of freshwater gamefish more or less resemble perch, but belong to a different genera. 
    • In fact, the exclusively salt water dwelling red drum is often referred to as a red perch, even though by definition perch are freshwater fish. 
    • Though many fish are referred to as perch as a common name, to be considered a true perch the fish must be of the family Percidae.

    Potassium Citrate

    Potassium Citrate

    • Potassium citrate is an alkalinizing agent that is used in conditions where long-term maintenance of an alkaline urine is desirable and for the treatment of metabolic acidosis.
    • Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart.
    • Potassium citrate is used to treat a kidney stone condition called renal tubular acidosis.
    • Potassium citrate is a powder or crystalline potassium salt mine in order to reduce the acidity in the blood and urine, thus preventing kidney stones and other conditions.

    Coloured Gold

    • While pure gold is yellow in color, colored gold can be developed into various colors. These colors are generally obtained by alloying gold with other elements in various proportions.
    • To produce green gold, varying amounts of silver, copper, and cadmium may be alloyed in differing percentages to create a range of green gold shades. Gold in pinks to reds requires varying amounts of copper and silver. Some gold colors, such as purple and blue, contain aluminum and iron, respectively. These gold colors are much more difficult to produce but are stunning in appearance.
    • Certain colors may be limited to 10kt, 14kt, or 18kt. Generally white, rose, and yellow gold are available in all three karatages.

    Friday, August 17, 2012

    Coin operated self service laundry

    • Coin-operated washing machines can be found in a variety of places, from apartment complexes to your local laundromat. They operate similarly to regular washing machines except that they require coins to work. There is typically a change machine on the premises, and you can also purchase items such as detergent and fabric softener from vending machines as well.
    • Laundromat is a full-service coin-op laundry (washing, drying, and optional folding) service dedicated to consistently providing high customer satisfaction by rendering reliable machines and furnishing a clean, enjoyable atmosphere at a competitive price/value relationship.
    • The Laundromat business is one that can exist for a long time because of the high demand for this service in any community. The main prerequisite in buying a laundromat service is that you have the wisdom to research it properly. This is the most important thing you need to do before obtaining or constructing a coin-operated laundry business.

    Sodium Thyocyanate

    Sodium Thyocyanate

    • Sodium thiocyanate is the chemical compound with the formula NaSCN. 
    • This colorless deliquescent salt is one of the main sources of the thiocyanate anion. 
    • As such, it is used as a precursor for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other specialty chemicals.
    • Thiocyanate salts are typically prepared by the reaction of cyanide with elemental sulfur.


    • Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is an odorless, colorless non-oily silicone fluid used primarily to make other silicone materials. During this manufacturing process, virtually all of the material is consumed, with only a tiny amount of D4 remaining. 
    • In a small handful of personal care products, D4 can be used as an additive providing certain application-related benefits preferred by consumers.
    • Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), a common constituent of household products, triggers the transformation of bismuth to the volatile toxic derivative trimethylbismuth by Methanosarcina barkeri, which is a representative member of the sewage sludge microflora

    Tuesday, August 14, 2012

    Doubled Haploid Technology

    • A doubled haploid (DH) is a genotype formed when haploid cells undergo chromosome doubling. Artificial production of doubled haploids is important in plant breeding.
    • For doubled haploids to become a valuable breeding technique, it is necessary that success of doubled haploid production is not genotype dependent, the protocol used is efficient in time and cost.
    • Benefits of this technology are ,Double Haploid technology creates true-breeding lines in a single step, Combined DH & molecular marker technologies  result in increased rates of genetic gain,  Facilitates multiple trait stacking/pyramiding, Increases efficiency & probability of successful product development ,Reduces time to market.
    • Tobacco, rapeseed, and barley are the most responsive species for doubled haploid production. Doubled haploid methodologies have now been applied to over 250 species.

    Spectacle frames

    • Finding eyeglasses with the qualities that are most important to you could be as simple as choosing the right frame material, because each type has its own unique strengths.
    • If you want the colors of the rainbow, then zyl (zylonite, or cellulose acetate) is your material.
    • Eyeglasses made of nylon first were introduced in the late 1940s. Because of brittleness and other problems, eyeglass manufacturers switched to blended nylon (polyamides, co-polyamides and gliamides).

    Friday, August 10, 2012


    • Phytoplankton are microscopic plants that live in the ocean.These small plants are very important to the ocean and to the whole planet.
    • They are at the base of the food chain. Many small fish and whales eat them. Then bigger fish eat the little fish, etc.
    • The food chain continues and at some point in time we (people) come into it when we eat the fish. So the energy of plankton becomes our energy too.

    Vacuum Insulation

    • Vacuum Insulation was first invented by Sir James Dewar in 1892 it has been used for insulating everything from sub-cooled liquid helium at near absolute zero to hot coffee in a Thermos bottle.
    • The Performance and economic advantages of vacuum insulation have been realised in many industries and applications for decades.
    • It is an advanced thermal insulation technology that significantly outperforms conventional materials such as foam or fiber.
    • Vacuum insulation has a thermal resistance about eight times higher than the same thickness of traditional fibrous insulation. 

    Thursday, August 09, 2012

    Nitro Toluene

    Nitro Toluene

    • Mono nitro toluene, or methylnitrobenzene or nitrotoluene (MNT or NT), is a group of 3 organic compounds, a nitro derivative of toluene.
    • Its chemical formula is C6H4(CH3)(NO2).
    • Mono nitro toluene comes in three isomers, differing by the relative position of the methyl and nitro groups.
    • Typical use of nitro toluene is in production of pigments, antioxidants, agricultural chemicals, and photographic chemicals.
    • Ortho-Mononitrotoluene and para-mononitrotoluene can be also used as detection taggants for explosive detection.

    Barley Bread

    • Barley has been a valued grain in food products, including bread for many millennia.
    • This dense, rustic flat bread has a satisfying nutty taste and crunchy texture around the edges. It’s great served with soups and stews, or salads. It’s also nice on it’s own, spread with honey or avocado as a snack or light meal. Best served warm, right from the oven.
    • Barley contains a high level of β-glucan, fibre, amylase and antioxidants which can all contribute to good health. By substituting an amount of wheat flour with barley flour in bread researchers hope to develop a loaf that will be popular with consumers and at the same time better for them.

    UV varnish

    • A UV Varnish is a liquid coating that is applied to the surface of a sheet (available in Gloss, Matt and Silk finishes) which is then dried / cured under an ultra violet light.
    • Varnishing is one of the best methods available to greatly enhance the appearance of a printed sheet and after applying a UV varnish you can instantly see the difference.
    • The varnish is sprayed on to the paper / card in the same way as other varnishes. However, after spraying the card passes underneath UV lights which dries the varnish almost instantaneously.

    Wednesday, August 08, 2012

    Benzyl Acetate

    Benzyl Acetate

    • Benzyl acetate is an organic compound with the molecular formula C9H10O2. 
    • It is the ester formed by condensation of benzyl alcohol and acetic acid.
    • Benzyl acetate is found naturally in many flowers. 
    • It is the primary constituent of the essential oils from the flowers jasmine, ylang-ylang and tobira. 
    • It has pleasant sweet aroma reminiscent of jasmine. 
    • Consequently, it is used widely in perfumery and cosmetics for its aroma and in flavorings to impart apple and pear flavors