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Saturday, March 31, 2012

Distribution Agency

Distribution is the process of moving product from business (manufacturer/producer) to the end user. This intermediary role is played by distributors who collect production from the manufacturer and ensure its availability to the end user.

Investment in a small or medium scale distribution business would largely depend on the following factors:  Distribution territory or region to be covered,  Population of the area,  Number of houses; and  Family size.
The entrepreneurs choose locations like bungalows in the vicinity of the industrial areas or godowns within the industrial arras. Proximity of distribution house to the target market plays major role to cut down ransportation cost and increase revenue. Besides, loading and unloading of goods would be convenient.

Distribution business is a logistics business which draws a considerable investment in the
goods transportation vehicles. Success of the business largely depends on the efficient
transportation and delivery of products.

Lpg Marketing

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is used as fuel for cooking and heating in the northern
Pakistan particularly in Punjab.

LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is the generic name for commercial propane and commercial butane. These are hydrocarbon products produced by the oil and gas industries.

Ammonium Dichromate

Ammonium Dichromate is an odorless, bright orange to red, crystalline (sand - like) solid. It is used in dyeing textiles, as a pigment and oxidizing agent, and in metal treatment.

Ammonium dichromate is produced by a crystallzation process involving equivalent amounts of sodium dichromate and ammonium sulfate.

Major industrial uses of Cr(VI) compounds include: chromate pigments in dyes, paints, inks, and plastics; chromates added as anticorrosive agents to paints, primers, and other surface coatings; and chromic acid electroplated onto metal parts to provide a decorative or protective coating.

Silver Selenide

Silver(I) selenide is a chemical compound of silver and selenium. It is rarely found in the nature as mineral naumannite and is used in photography to produce selenium toning.

Silver selenide (Ag2Se) is a clear, hexagonal compound. It is the reaction product formed when selenium toning analog silver gelatine photo papers in photographic print toning.

The low - temperature phase of silver selenide is also a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications because of its relatively high Seebeck coefficient, low thermal conductivity, and high electrical conductivity.

Silver selenide has wide range of application in nonlinear optical devices , photo chargeable secondary batteries  and ion-selective electrodes  and in various other areas such as infra-red sensors and photolithographic layers

Potassium Ferricyanide

Potassium ferricyanide is the chemical compound with the formula K3[Fe(CN)6]. This bright red salt consists of the coordination compound [Fe(CN)6]3-.[2] It is soluble in water and its solution shows some green-yellow fluorescence.

Potassium ferricyanide is widely used as a chemical reducer in photographic processing to remove silver from negatives and positives (dot etching).

Potassium ferricyanide is used in many amperometric biosensors as an electron transfer agent replacing an enzyme's natural electron transfer agent such as oxygen as with the enzymeglucose oxidase.

Terephthalic Acid

Terephthalic acid is a carboxylic acid. Terephthalic acid donates hydrogen ions if a base is present to accept them. This "neutralization" generates substantial amounts of heat and produces water plus a salt.

China is by far the largest TPA producer in the world and accounted for a share of about 28% in 2009. Other major producers are the Republic of Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. The latter three export about half of the TPA produced, accounting for nearly 80% of the global trade, with the rest consumed in PET solid-state applications.


Tebuconazole - a colorless to light brown powder- is a broad spectrum fungicide used in a wide range of food and feed crops to treat pathogenic and foliar plant fungi.

Tebuconazole technical is a white to beige crystalline powder with a weak characteristic odour. The pure tebuconazole is a colourless powder with no characteristic odour- and a melting point
of 105°C. Its density is 1.25 at 26°C.

With the robust demand for the tebuconazole and the hike prices of raw materials, the price of tebuconazole 97% TC has been continuing to go up since Jan. 2011.

Potassium metabisulfite

  • Potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5, also known as potassium pyrosulfite, is a white crystalline powder with a pungent sulfur odour. The main use for the chemical is as an antioxidant or chemical sterilant.
  • It is a disulfite and is chemically very similar to sodium metabisulfite, with which it is sometimes used interchangeably. 
  • Potassium metabisulfite is generally preferred out of the two as it does not contribute sodium to the diet.
  • Potassium metabisulfite has a monoclinic crystal structure which decomposes at 190 °C, yielding potassium oxide and sulfur dioxide.

Thursday, March 29, 2012


  • Phenidone (1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidinone) is an organic chemical compound whose primary use is as a photographic developer.
  • It has five to ten times the developing power as Metol.
  • Phenidone gives no fog with Low-Speed emulsion papers. However, with high speed emulsions it may produce fog.
  • Phenidone is slightly soluble in cold water, but as the temperature of the solution increases Phenidone becomes more soluble, It is readily soluble in both acid and alkaline solutions.

Potassium dichromate

  • Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is a common inorganic chemical reagent, most commonly used as an oxidizing agent in various laboratory and industrial applications. 
  • It is a crystalline ionic solid with a very bright, red-orange color.
  • Potassium dichromate has important uses in photography and in photographic screen printing.


  • Diethanolamine, often abbreviated as DEA, is an organic compound with the formula HN(CH2CH2OH)2. This colorless liquid is polyfunctional, being a secondary amine and a diol. Like other organic amines, diethanolamine acts as a weak base. Reflecting the hydrophilic character of the alcohol groups, DEA is soluble in water, and is even hygroscopic.
  • Amides prepared from DEA are often also hydrophilic. The reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous ammonia first produces ethanolamine which reacts with a second and third equivalent of ethylene oxide to give DEA and triethanolamine.
  • DEA is a versatile chemical intermediate, principal derivatives include ethyleneimine an diethylenediamine. Dehydration of DEA with sulfuric acid gives morpholine. Amides derived from DEA and fatty acids, known as diethanolamides, are amphiphilic.

Polybutylene terephthalate

  • Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) is a thermoplastic engineering polymer, that is used as an insulator in the electrical and electronics industries.
  • It is a thermoplastic (semi-)crystalline polymer, and a type of polyester. PBT is resistant to solvents, shrinks very little during forming, is mechanically strong, heat-resistant up to 150 °C (or 200 °C with glass-fibre reinforcement) and can be treated with flame retardants to make it noncombustible.
  • PBT is closely related to other thermoplastic polyesters. Compared to PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PBT has slightly lower strength and rigidity, slightly better impact resistance, and a slightly lower glass transition temperature.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

Vinyl Polymers

  • Vinyl polymers are the most common type of plastic.
  • Like all plastic materials, vinyl results from a series of processing steps that convert hydrocarbon-based raw materials (petroleum, natural gas or coal) into unique synthetic products called polymers.
  • The vinyl polymer is unusual, however, because it is based only in part on hydrocarbon feedstocks: ethylene obtained by processing, or cracking, natural gas or petroleum.
  • The other half of the vinyl polymer is based on the natural element chlorine.

Silver Bromide

Silver Bromide

  • Silver bromide (AgBr), a soft, pale-yellow, water insoluble salt well known (along with other silver halides) for its unusual sensitivity to light. This property has allowed silver halides to become the basis of modern photographic materials.
  • The salt can be found naturally as the mineral bromargyrite (bromyrite).
  • Although the compound can be found in mineral form, AgBr is typically prepared by the reaction of silver nitrate with an alkali bromide, typically potassium bromide.

Thursday, March 22, 2012


  • A photoresist is a light-sensitive material used in several industrial processes, such as  photolithography and photoengraving to form a patterned coating on a surface.
  • Photoresists are classified into two groups: positive resists and negative resists.
  • A positive resist is a type of photoresist in which the portion of the photoresist that is exposed to light becomes soluble to the photoresist developer. The portion of the photoresist that is unexposed remains insoluble to the photoresist developer.
  • Positive resist has the advantages of high contrast, good step coverage, and high aspect ratios. 


  • Struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate) is a phosphate mineral with formula: NH4MgPO4·6H2O. Struvite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system as white to yellowish or brownish-white pyramidal crystals or in platey mica-like forms. 
  • It is a soft mineral with Mohs hardness of 1.5 to 2 and has a low specific gravity of 1.7. It is sparingly soluble in neutral and alkaline conditions, but readily soluble in acid.
  • Struvite urinary stones and crystals form readily in the urine of animals and humans that are infected with ammonia-producing organisms.
  • They are potentiated by alkaline urine and high magnesium excretion (high magnesium/plant-based diets). They also are potentiated by a specific urinary protein, in domestic cats.

Sodium superoxide

Sodium Peroxide

  • Sodium superoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula NaO2. This yellow-orange solid is a salt of the superoxide anion. It is an intermediate in the oxidation of sodium by oxygen.
  • Sodium superoxide was first synthesized in 1949 by the oxidation of sodium peroxide at an oxygen pressure of 289 atmospheres and a temperature of 490°C for a reaction period of 100 hours . Improvements in this process have yielded products which are almost pure.

Silver Chloride

  • Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Ag1+Cl1-. This white crystalline solid is well known for its low solubility in water .
  • Upon illumination or heating, silver chloride converts to silver (and chlorine), which is signalled by greyish or purplish coloration to some samples. AgCl occurs naturally as a mineral chlorargyrite.
  • Silver chloride is nonconductive and is made conductive by superficially reducing the surface to silver by immersion in a photographic developing solution.

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

Glycerin-to-ECH plant

Here is something basic on ECH...
ECH (epichlorohydrin ) is an essential feedstock for the production of epoxy resins and is
 also increasingly being used in applications such as corrosion protection coating, in electronics, automotive or aersopace markets
For 1 tonne of ECH produced using the Epicerol technology, 1.1 tonnes of refined glycerin is used as feedstock and added with hydrogen chloride

Tuesday, March 20, 2012


  • Myristicin, or methoxysafrole, is a benzodioxole with slight MAO-inhibiting properties. Myristicin is a colorless oil that generally does not crystallize, even at extremely low temperatures (i.e., -30°C). Myristicin is mostly stable upon storage, but still subject to gradual changes in composition. 
  • Myristicin is a clear, mobile, colourless oil that does not normally freeze even at very low temperaturers, although a recent report describes its purification by repeated crystallization at -30 deg c. 
  • Myristicin, the main component of nutmeg, has been implicated to have the following adverse effects: detachment from reality, tachycardia, flushing, hypotension, drowsiness, confabulation, gagging, vomiting, ileus, paresthesias, numbness, blurred vision, hypothermia, and sweating. 
  • Myristicin has usually been isolated from natural oils by fractional distillation, as it is crystallized only with difficulty even at very low temperature. 


  • Tebuconazole - a colorless to light brown powder- is a broad spectrum fungicide used in a wide range of food and feed crops to treat pathogenic and foliar plant fungi.
  • Tebuconazole technical is a white to beige crystalline powder with a weak characteristic odour. The pure tebuconazole is a colourless powder with no characteristic odour- and a melting point of 105°C. Its density is 1.25 at 26°C
  • Major tebuconazole technical producers, such as Yancheng Limin Chemical Co., Ltd. (Yancheng Limin), Jiangsu Sevencontinent Green Chemical Co., Ltd. (Jiangsu Sevencontinent), etc., reveal that the supply of tebuconazole technical is very tight currently.
  • With the robust demand for the tebuconazole and the hike prices of raw materials, the price of tebuconazole 97% TC has been continuing to go up since Jan. 2011.


  • Benzidine is a synthetic chemical that does not occur naturally. It is a crystalline (sandy or sugar-like) solid that may be grayish-yellow, white, or reddish-gray in color. 
  • Benzidine, the trivial name for 4,4'-diaminobiphenyl, is the solid organic compound with the formula (C6H4NH2)2. This aromatic amine is a component of a test for cyanide and also in the production of dyes.
  • Benzidine is prepared in a two step process from nitrobenzene. First, the nitrobenzene is converted to 1,2-diphenylhydrazine, usually using iron powder as the reducing agent. Treatment of this hydrazine with mineral acids induces a rearrangement reaction to 4,4'-benzidine. Smaller amounts of other isomers are also formed. The benzidine rearrangement, which proceeds intramolecularly, is a classic mechanistic puzzle in organic chemistry.
  • Benzidine - based dyes are largely classified as direct dyes, since they may be applied directly to fabrics or other substrates without pre-treatment or without subsequent processes that firmly attach the dye to the substrate.


  • Linalool is a colorless to very pale yellow liquid with a floral smell similar to that of bergamot oil and French lavender. It is a naturally occurring substance that is used to make fragrances and flavors.
  • Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowersand spice plants with many commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent .
  • New technologies for extraction, as super critical fluids, would be essential in the production of linalool from species other than rosewood, due its precision in extracting only the wanted substance at low temperatures.  
  • The cosmetics industry is becoming increasingly interested in many different, often very specific, essential oils, many of them of tropical origin. The exact demand situation is therefore difficult to characterise.

  • A polysilazane (silazane-based polymer) is a material having a polymeric chain structure based on alternating silicon and nitrogen atoms. Polysilazanes have have both linear, cyclic, and fused cyclic chain segments.
  • Polysilazanes are colorless to pale yellow liquids or solid materials. Conditional of manufacturing, the liquids often contain dissolved ammonia that can be detected by smell.
  • Polysilazanes are useful among other things for the preparation of silicon nitride, Si3N4, by pyrolysis. Silicon nitride is a hard material and is useful in forming fibres for reinforcement of composite materials. 

Finished Leather Trade

  • The leather industrial sector comprises of tanneries (where raw hides and skins are converted into leather) and factories converting leather into a variety of consumer products such as footwear, garments and outerwear, and assorted leather goods such as wallets, passport cases, key chains, handbags and briefcases.
  • Leather Industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment,  growth and exports.
  • Global players have shown considerable interest  in Indian leather sector and leading leather brands from the US and Europe are sourcing leather and leather products from India.
  • The main production centres for leather and leather products are the  following: - Tamil Nadu – Chennai, Ambur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Trichy, Dindigul and Puducherry - West Bengal – Kolkata - Uttar Pradesh – Kanpur, Unnao, Banther, Agra and Noida - Punjab – Jallandhar .Tamil Nadu accounts for about 40%  of India’s exports and has about 60% of tanning capacity.  



  • Ninhydrin (2,2-Dihydroxyindane-1,3-dione) is a chemical used to detect ammonia or primary and secondary amines. When reacting with these free amines, a deep blue or purple color known as Ruhemann's purple is produced.
  •  It is a white solid which is soluble in ethanol and acetone at room temperature.
  • A ninhydrin solution is commonly used by forensic investigators in the analysis of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces such as paper. 

Uranyl Nitrate

Uranyl nitrate can be prepared by reaction of uranium salts with nitric acid. It is soluble in water, ethanol, acetone, and ether, but not in benzene toluene or chloroform 
Uranyl nitrate is usually used as an electron dense stain for transmission electron microscopy. 
Bis(nitrato-O)dioxouranium. A compound used in photography and the porcelain industry. It causes severe renalinsufficiency and renal tubular necrosis in mammals and is an effective lymphocyte mitogen. 
They are Strong oxidizing Agent and RadioActive Material 

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Potassium Thiocyanate

Potassium Thiocyanate

  • Potassium thiocyanate is the chemical compound with the molecular formula KSCN. It is an important salt of the thiocyanate anion, one of the pseudohalides. The compound has a low melting point relative to most other inorganic salts.
  • Dilute aqueous KSCN is occasionally used for moderately realistic blood effects in film and theater. It can be painted onto a surface or kept as a colorless solution.

Wednesday, March 14, 2012


  • Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it is also known as guncotton. Nitrocellulose plasticized by camphor was used by Kodak, and other suppliers, from the late 1880s as a film base in photograph, X-ray films and motion picture films; and was known as nitrate film.
  • After numerous fires caused by unstable nitrate films, safety film started to be used from the 1930s in the case of X-ray stock and from 1948 for motion picture film.
  • Nitrocellulose is produced by causing cellulose to react with nitrating acid (a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid). Following complex washing and stabilizing stages, damping agents (alcohols or water) or plasticizers are added to the nitrocellulose which is then marketed as Walsroder Nitrocellulose or Walsroder NC-Chips.

1-DXN Ganoderma Intro

How To Do Financial Feasibility Study by Ameen Ahsan

Thursday, March 08, 2012

Potassium hydroxide

KOH Potassium Hydroxide

  • Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, commonly called caustic potash.
  • Along with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), this colorless solid is a prototypical strong base. It has many industrial and niche applications.
  • Most applications exploit its reactivity toward acids and its corrosive nature. In 2005, an estimated 700,000 to 800,000 tonnes were produced.

Wednesday, March 07, 2012

Silver Nitrate

Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO3. This compound is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds, such as those used in photography. It is far less sensitive to light than the halides. It was once called lunar caustic because silver was called luna by the ancient alchemists, because they believed that silver was associated with the moon.

Silver nitrate can be prepared by reacting silver, such as a silver bullion or silver foil, with nitric acid
Silver nitrate is the least expensive salt of silver; it offers several other advantages as well. It is non-hygroscopic, in contrast to silver fluoroborate and silver perchlorate. It is relatively stable to light. Finally, it dissolves in numerous solvents, including water.

Silver nitrate is used in many ways in organic synthesis, e.g. for deprotection and oxidations. Ag+ binds alkenes reversibly, and silver nitrate has been used to separate mixtures of alkenes by selective absorption. The resulting adduct can be decomposed with ammonia to release the free alkene.

Thursday, March 01, 2012

banana fibre extraction


  • Pyrogallol or benzene-1,2,3-triol is a benzenetriol. It is a white crystalline powder and a powerful reducing agent. It was first prepared by Scheele 1786 by heating gallic acid. An alternate preparation is heating para-chlorophenoldisulphonic acid with potassium hydroxide.
  • When in alkaline solution, it absorbs oxygen from the air, turning purple from a colourless solution. It can be used in this way to calculate the amount of oxygen in air, notably via the use of the Orsat apparatus.
  • One can find its uses in hair dying, dying of suturing materials and for oxygen absorption in gas analysis. It also has antiseptic properties. Pyrogallol was also used as a developing agent in black-and-white developers, but its use is largely historical except for special purpose applications.

Food irradiation

Food irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation to destroy microorganisms, bacteria, viruses, or insects that might be present in the food. Further applications include sprout inhibition, delay of ripening, increase of juice yield, and improvement of re-hydration.

The commercialization of food irradiation is increasing. Retail stores that offer irradiated products for sale are experiencing positive consumer responses.

The cost of food irradiation is influenced by dose requirements, the food's tolerance of radiation, handling conditions, i.e., packaging and stacking requirements, construction costs, financing arrangements, and other variables particular to the situation.


Polypeptides are chains of amino acids. Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide molecules.
A polypeptide is a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide. Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional way and are often bound to cofactors, or other proteins.
The utilisation of peptide synthesis technology in solving health problems of worldwide importance was mainly dictated by the desire to obtain stable products devoid of the various contaminants often seen in recombinant material (glycosylation variants, proteases, DNA, endotoxins) in record time and in reasonable quantities to perform preclinical testing.


Polyimide is a polymeric plastic material, engineered for long term performance at very high temperatures, in excess of 250° C for prolonged periods of time.
Polyimide is made from two key ingredients, which may each contain traces of impurities, such as water vapor, or even traces of iron from the chemical drums containing solvents used.
Major producers of polyimide film, Kaneka High Tech Materials(KHM) (Manufacturing facilities in Texas and Japan) and Dupont have reacted to this situation and have announced plans to significantly increase capacity sometime during the first half of 2002.
Consumption of polyimide and other imide polymer resins in Asian countries other than Japan, including China, India, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Taiwan, has been growing rapidly in recent years despite the global economic recession

Cast Nylon

Cast nylons are a range of polyamides produced by a casting process involving the anionic polymerisation of caprolactam.
The family of nylons consists of several different types. Nylon 6/6, nylon 6, nylon 6/10, nylon 6/12, nylon 11, nylon 12, and nylon 6-6/6 copolymer are the most common.
Cast nylons are used in a wide range of applications, from a simple equipment support pad, to a sophisticated drum in a machine that sorts thousands of coins a minute, to a sheave on a crane that can lift 1,000 tons, to a component used to eviscerate chickens! There is perhaps no other process that can produce parts weighing from one pound to over eight hundred pounds in tooling that, relatively speaking, costs peanuts.
China’s demand for nylon 6 driving it, caprolactam pricing in Asia moved upward dramatically during Q1 and the attractive pricing is pulling in material from the world.
Asia nylon 6 and 6,6 markets inched upward in March. The spot nylon 6 price for Chinese and Taiwanese brands stabilized, while US$ imported nylon 6 price were strong.


Polybutylene (polybutene-1, poly(1-butene), PB-1) is a polyolefin or saturated polymer with the chemical formula (C4H8)n.
Polybutylene is a form of plastic resin that was used extensively in the manufacture of water supply piping from 1978 until 1995. Due to the low cost of the material and ease of installation, polybutylene piping systems were viewed as "the pipe of the future" and were used as a substitute for traditional copper piping.
Polybutene consumption is most influenced by the market for fuel and oil additives, which in turn, is a function of lubricant sales. Lubricant sales in the US are growing at slightly better than 1%/year.

Foliage Plants

Foliage plants are grown mainly for their leaves. Due to the fact that most foliage plants are tropical in nature, they adapt easily to indoor conditions.

As foliage plants are produced primarily for interior decoration or interior plantscaping, new end use will generate greater demand in production. New cultivar releases and new plant introductions provide products for new uses, and desire for novelty and new uses among consumers promote selection of new cultivars and introduction of new plants, which then increase production.