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Thursday, June 30, 2011

Galvanizing Plants

Galvanizing is a process in which a zinc film is deposited on goods made of steel to provide long term (generally 10 to 30 years) corrosion protection and abrasion resistance.

A new precision zinc galvanizing process has been developed providing superior wear and corrosion protection on steel and iron parts. The process eliminates environmental problems with traditional hot dip galvanizing and zinc electroplating processes.

Worldwide, the largest markets for galvanized steel are mostly the “Construction
industries” and the “Automobile industries”. The recycle life of galvanized steel can
be up to 100 years and the added cost is justified by decreased maintenance cost over
non-galvanized steel.

European general galvanizing plants, which protect about 5Mt steel products each year, do not generate process scrap.

Waste Paper Business

Paper recycling is the process of recovering waste paper and remaking it into new paper products.Paper is required and used for anything and everything one can think of. With hundreds of final uses, paper satisfies many important human needs.
Globally, recycling of paper is a huge business. There are global exchanges that deal in waste paper and many countries mandate the recycling of paper.Currently, the recovery of waste paper in India is low at 26% compared to say Germany at 80%, Thailand at 45% and China at 38%, according to the Indian Agro & Recycled Paper Mills Association (IARPMA) estimates.

Waste Paper Business

Paper recycling is the process of recovering waste paper and remaking it into new paper products.Paper is required and used for anything and everything one can think of. With hundreds of final uses, paper satisfies many important human needs.
Globally, recycling of paper is a huge business. There are global exchanges that deal in waste paper and many countries mandate the recycling of paper.Currently, the recovery of waste paper in India is low at 26% compared to say Germany at 80%, Thailand at 45% and China at 38%, according to the Indian Agro & Recycled Paper Mills Association (IARPMA) estimates.

Melia Dubia

Melia dubia is also called as a Maha neem or Forest neem. Which is fastest growing tree species, with in 6-7 years the plantation is ready to harvest. The wood is having good demand from ply wood industries.

Melia dubia originates from the Meliaceae family and is an indigenous species of tree to India, South East Asia and Australia, where it has been cultivated as a source of firewood.

Melia Dubia is the fastest growing tree and the wood from this tree is used in Plywood Industry.



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Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Land Fill Gas

Landfill gas production results from chemical reactions and microbes acting upon the waste as the putrescible materials begins to break down in the landfill.
The rate of production is affected by waste composition and landfill geometry, which in turn influence the bacterial populations within it, chemical make-up, thermal characteristics, entry of moisture and escape of gas.

Alcohol From Tapioca Starch

Ethanol (Alcohol), especially one that is produced from cassava, is a good bio fuel. Besides, the cultivation of cassava (also known as tapioca) and its conversion to ethanol can be done in rural areas.

Every 1,000 tonnes of tapioca production creates 350 tonnes of by-product which in turn can produce 15,000 liters of ethanol.

Acrylic sheets

Acrylic plastic refers to a family of synthetic, or man-made, plastic materials containing one or more derivatives of acrylic acid. The most common
acrylic plastic is polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which is sold under the brand names of Plexiglas, Lucite, Perspex, and Crystallite.

Statistics show that 2007 was another strong year for MMA. Global demand increased by over 5% to 2.9mmtes; the highest growth came from Asia with Europe also contributing a strong performance.

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Sindoor

Sindoor is a traditional red or orange-red colored cosmetic powder from the Indian subcontinent, usually worn by married women along the parting of their hair.

Sindoor is most important beauty item for wedded women, devotion and other purposes.

The process provides an opportunity for the preparation of different shades of sindoor like orange, red, dark red, mehroon, etc., using different dyes and their blends.

The main component of traditional sindoor is usually vermilion.

Most of the sindoor available in market are made from synthetic dyes, filler materials, lime and salts of lead and mercury to provide fast and brilliant red shades.

Monday, June 27, 2011

Prepreg

Pre-preg is a term for "pre-impregnated" composite fibres. These usually take the form of a weave or are uni-directional.
Prepregs provide better mechanical performance over a wide temperature range than wet layups, that is , dry fabric with manually - applied resin.
The demand for prepreg is growing with high rate in new applications also, like in tidal turbine blades.
Prepreg has excellent properties of light weight and high strength. Supply demand gap is likely to decrease in near future as the prepred demand growth rate outpaces the capacity additions by major suppliers.

Saturday, June 25, 2011

Oxydemeton-Methyl

ODM(Oxydemeton-Methyl) is a broad spectrum, systemic insecticide/acaricide registered for foliar and bark treatment uses
to control many insects, primarily aphids, mites, and thrips.

Approximately 150,000 pounds of ODM active ingredient are used annually in the United States.

The resistance mechanisms to oxydemeton-methyl were surveyed in two Iranian strains of the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Bioassay was carried out on two strains, collected from Tehran and Rasht using a dipping method.

The MRLs are expressed as the sum oxydemeton-methyl, demeton-S-methyl, and demeton-Smethylsulphon, expressed as oxydemeton-methyl.

Morphine

  • Morphine is the main active compound in opium, the juice obtained from the seed pods of the poppy plant Papaver Somniferum, and has been widely used for centuries for means both medical and recreational.
  • Like other opioids, such as oxycodone, hydromorphone, and diacetylmorphine (heroin), morphine acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain.

Coconut Feni

Coconut feni – it is prepared with the help of toddy plant’s juice. Around 65% of coconut feni is made in South Goa and the remaining 35% in North Goa.
To obtain one ltr. of Feni around 30 kgs. of Coconut taddy is needed.

Supari

Arecanut or betel nut or supari (Areca catechu) is an important member of the family Araceae.
Supari is a palm tree grown extensively in India, mainly for the production of betel nut and for the purpose of the wood for specific building purposes.
Pan masala is a mixture of supari (areca nut or betal nut), slaked lime, betel leaf, flavorings
and spices. It is also commonly called a betel quid.
Supari is marketed in attractive aluminium foil packs, in tins and in simple paper packets.
Offering supari to guests, especially after meals, is a prevalent and well-accepted social custom.

Friday, June 24, 2011

Gluten

Gluten, a protein component of a kernel of corn, is not present at any level of production of decaffeinated coffee.

Gluten is the composite of a prolamin and a glutelin, which exist, conjoined with starch, in the endosperm of various grass-related grains.

Gluten is a tough, rubbery and elastic substance, which can stretch and rise due to the action of baking powder or yeast.

Recent increases of wheat gluten imported into the US have lead to trade disputes.

Imports of gluten into the U.S. have dramatically increased 5.23 million bushels by some year from 1.79 million bushels in the previous year.

The estimated coefficients and confidence intervals also show that the gluten import quantity is significantly related to prices in three out of four wheat classes.

Thursday, June 23, 2011

Hair Dye

Dyes are formulated to give hair long-lasting and richly hued colors, but several factors — from mechanical to environmental — can accelerate color changes and fading.

New understandings in genetics and biology and the role of DNA in dictating the color, condition and health of hair are taking hair-coloring technology into a whole new realm.

Scientists are looking into hair-coloring techniques of the future, including nano-sized colorants and substances that stimulate the genes to produce melanin pigment that colors hair.

Furanics

Furanics’ are a new class of biofuels, named after the furan rings in the fuel's molecules. The molecule contains six carbon atams and one oxygen atom and has a high energy content similar to that of gasoline, and a significant improvement over ethanol.
Furanics’ are a new class of biofuels, named after the furan rings in the fuel's molecules. The molecule contains six carbon atams and one oxygen atom and has a high energy content similar to that of gasoline, and a significant improvement over ethanol.

Cough Syrup

A cough medicine (or linctus, when in syrup form) is a medicinal drug used in an attempt to treat coughing and related conditions.If you have a dry, hacking cough, dextromethorphan may give you relief. Generally, these cough syrups and cough medicines are not used to suppress a cough where you cough up mucus.

Mosquito Repellent Candle

Repellents may have an increasingly important role in eliminating insects from certain environments (such as schools, hospitals and food preparation areas), and we believe that natural products, such as essential oils, could play a major role in new repellent technology.
Candles are very cheap and easily availabale sources of artificial light especially in countries where electricity - sources are less than public demand.

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a source of renewable energy. The process produces a biogas, comprising of methane and carbon dioxide. This biogas can be used directly as cooking fuel, in combined heat and power gas engines or upgraded to natural gas quality biomethane. The utilisation of biogas as a fuel helps to replace fossil fuels.

EPA estimates that 157 digester projects are operating on commercial scale livestock
facilities nationwide - July 2010.

Broom Stick Processing

A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of stiff fibres attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick.
Brooms have been used for centuries to sweep up, in, and around the home and workplace. They may be made from a variety of materials, both man-made and natural.
Some brooms are made from vegetable fibers such as palmyra stalks, rice straw, piassava (West Africa), "rice root", and even grass, sedge, and twigs in certain parts of the world.


Rice-Husk-Gasification

The outermost layer of the paddy grain is the rice husk, also called rice hull.

Burning rice husk producedrice husk ash (RHA), if the burning process is incomplete carbonized rice husk (CRH) is produced.

Rice husk is a difficult biomass fuel compared with wood and bagasse, due to high silica content of rice husk ash

The best estimate on costs for transporting rice husk was provided bythe faculty of Bogor Agricultural University as 200 Rp/M.T./kilometer in two-ton loads with a haul distance of five kilometers.

The annual production of rice husk is approximately 4.6 million tons.

Tuesday, June 21, 2011

Nubuck Oil

Nubuck is a type of leather with a soft, velvety surface and is some of the most expensive leather to purchase. Unlike the less expensive suede, nubuck leather is far more durable and is excellent for use on items like furniture because it will last much longer than suede. It is subject to the same kind of easy staining that occurs with suede and often requires pre-treatment or stain resistant protection to extend its life.

Monday, June 20, 2011

Magnesium Oxychloride Boards

Magnesium Oxide Fire Resistance Boards also known as MGO Fire Resistance Boards (MFR
Boards), Magnesium Oxychloride Boards are products with good fire resistance, good heat
insulation and good sound insulation. These Boards are environment friendly and non-toxic.

Rectified Spirit

A rectified spirit, rectified alcohol, or neutral spirit is highly concentrated ethanol which has been purified by means of repeated distillation, a process that is called rectification.

Rectified spirits are used in mixed drinks, in the production of liqueurs, for medicinal purposes, and as a household solvent.

Neutral grain spirits are rectified spirits made from grain.

Friday, June 17, 2011

Electronic grade chemicals

The electronic grade chemicals is used to refer to chemicals used in electronic industry, particularly in semi-conductor/ micro processor fabrication or simply “fab”.
The electronic industry worldwide stimulated the growing demand for electronic-grade hydrofluoric acid.

Paper Sizing Chemicals

Alkyl Ketene Dimmer (AKD) also called AKD wax and Alkenyl Succinic Anhydride (ASA) are
wax like chemicals. Both AKD and ASA are used as sizing chemicals for paper.
Traditionally Rosin (Acidic sizing) was used as paper sizing material.
Due to changes in paper manufacturing technologies the sizing process is changed to alkaline/neutral sizing from acidic sizing. AKD and ASA are the main neutral sizing chemicals.

Metal-Organic-Precursors


Metalorganic compounds (jargon: metalorganics, metallo-organics) are a class of chemical compounds that contain metals and organic ligands.

Precursors are one of the compounds that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound.

Metal-organic (MO) chemicals or precursors are used in the epitaxial growth of LED semiconductor materials

Metal-organic (MO) chemicals or precursors provide the source of metallic elements such as gallium (Ga), indium (In) and aluminum (Al).

Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Tanning Agent

Tanning is the process of making leather, which does not easily decompose, from the skins of animals, which do. The materials which can tan leather are known as tannins. These can be produced naturally or synthetically.
The production of leather depends on the generation of complexes between the tanning  agent and the skin collagen.
Chromium metal is widely used as a tanning agent worldwide. The process called chrome-tanning is accomplished in three steps: Pickling, Tanning and Basification.

The Hindu : Arts / Books : Financing small enterprises

The Hindu : Arts / Books : Financing small enterprises
Financial support to small enterprises in India - book to read

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

NPK Fertilizer


Fertilizer is a material that is added to the soil to supply one or more elements required for plant growth and productiveness.
India is the 3rd largest fertilizer producer in the world. In India chemical fertilizers played a significant role which is well recognized  and established for the success in agriculture sector, not only in terms of meeting total requirement of food grains but also generating exportable surpluses.

Zineb

Zineb (zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate) belongs to thiocarbamate group and has the widest application in protection of tobaccos, vegetables and fruits.

Phosphamidon

  • Phosphamidon is widely used pesticide like other organophosphorus.

  • Phosphamidon is an organophosphate insecticide that was marketed under the trade name of "Dimecron "

  • Phosphamidon has been detected in the environment as the contaminants in the drinking water and pesticide residues in food stuffs because of their extensive uses.

  • The chemical names of Phosphamidon are 2-chloro-2-(diethyl-carbamoyl)-1-methyl-vinyl-dimethylphosphate; dimethyl (1-methyl-2-chloro-2-miethylcarbamoyl-vinyl) phosphate; dimethyl diethylamido-1-chlorocrotonyl (2) phosphate.

Cenospheres

A cenosphere is a lightweight, inert, hollow sphere filled with inert air or gas, typically produced as a byproduct of coal combustion at thermal power plants.
Cenospheres are used as fillers in lowdensity concrete; in plastics and composite materials used for manufacturing bowling balls, kayaks, surfboards, and automotive components; and in fire bricks, floor tiles, and insulating materials.

Desalination

A desalination plant essentially separates saline water into two streams: one with a low
concentration of dissolved salts (the fresh water stream) and the other containing the
remaining dissolved salts (the concentrate or brine stream).