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Saturday, July 30, 2011

Sodium Perborate

Sodium perborate (PBS) is a white, odorless, water-soluble chemical compound with chemical formula NaBO3.

Sodium perborate usually exists in two forms, tetrahydrated and monohydrated.

Sodium perborate produced by means of a product of hydrogen peroxide and sodium metaborate reaction, is widely used in household, textile and chemical industries. As an effective universal oxidizing and bleaching agent.

Sodium perborate is used by industry to formulate a variety of cleaning products including powders or tablets sold as laundry detergents, dishwashing products, or a variety of other cleaning products.

It is also present in some tooth bleaching formulas. It is used as a bleaching agent for internal bleaching of a non vital root treated tooth.


Graphene is a flat one-atom thick sheet of sp2 carbon atoms densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice structure. It is the basic structural element for graphite, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes.
Graphene with the unique combination of bonded carbon atom structures with its myriad and complex physical properties is poised to have a big impact on the future of material sciences, electronics and nanotechnology.

Friday, July 29, 2011


Warehousing is one of the important auxiliaries to trade. It creates time utility by bridging the
time gap between production and consumption of goods.

Warehousing can be defined by three functions: receiving goods from a source; storing goods until they are needed by a customer (internal or external); retrieving the goods when requested.

Warehouses are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, transport businesses, customs, etc.

Warehousing minimizes the effects of supply chain inefficiencies, improves logistics accuracy and inventory management, and allows product accumulation, consolidation, and customization.

Thursday, July 28, 2011

Tissue paper

Tissue paper is a lightweight paper or, light crêpe paper. Tissue can be made both from virgin
and recycled paper pulp.
Tissue paper is used to make a huge range of products with different properties and quality demands. Key properties are: strength, absorbency, basis weight, thickness (bulk), brightness,
stretch, appearance and comfort.
The paper tissue industry, along with the rest of the paper manufacturing sector, has worked hard to minimise its impact on the environment.

Strawberry Jam

Strawberries are also an excellent source of vitamin C, a good source of folate and potassium, and are relatively low in calories.

Low-calorie strawberry jams were prepared by the replacement of sugar with fructose + aspartame and fructose syrup + aspartame.

Wednesday, July 27, 2011

Men's Undergarments Stitching

Undergarments or underwear are clothes worn under other clothes, often next to the skin. They keep outer garments from being soiled by bodily secretions and discharges, shape the body, and provide support for parts of it.
The demand for underwears is mainly related with population growth and income.The price of underwear depends on the quality of the raw material used as well as the model.

Monday, July 25, 2011


Afforestation is the establishment of tree plantations on land that has not previously been managed for forests. Emphasis is placed on maximizing the use of available land and resources with high yield tree species.
Trees can either be of similar species or mixed in a manner that will result in a stand or forest.
Plantings may be seeds, seedlings, or semi-mature trees.
Trees reduce runoff volume through evapotranspiration and interception and improve the infiltration capacity of the soil, thereby reducing runoff potential.

Ozone Generator

Ozone is a tri-oxygen molecules that acts as powerful disinfecting and deodorizing gas. Due to its strong oxidizing nature ozone is used in various water treatment processes. For industrial applications, ozone generator is used for producing ozone.

An ozone generator is basically an electrical machine, which transforms electrical energy into chemical energy and heat.

The increasing demand for ozone makes it necessary to improve the capacity and efficiency of ozone generators. Ozone is used widely for sterilization and substituting oxidizing materials, and that, directly or indirectly, means hazardous pollution to the environment.

Ozone is the second most powerful sterilant in the world and its function is to destroy bacteria, viruses and odors.

Thursday, July 21, 2011


Labels hold a primary position in the identification of items. Labels are used for the identification and differentiation of products, both raw and finished.

The labels carry extra information. For example, they may show quality symbols for the fabric the product is made from, such as wool, silk or cotton, or it could be an eco-label.

The total global value of exports of labels is more than $627 million2. Korea is the largest exporting country with a share of 25.9% and a total value of $162 million.

USA is the second largest exporting country having a share of 11.5% and a total value of $72 million.

A watermarking system for embedding textile care labels directly onto fabric design is proposed, and its stochastic properties are analyzed.


A tyre is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground.Tyres are one of the most important parts of your vehicle.
They affect how well it handles on the road and your fuel consumption.The Indian tyre industry produces tyres for trucks, buses, passenger cars, jeeps, light trucks, tractors, animal drawn vehicles, scooters, motorcycles, mopeds, bicycles, off-the-road vehicles and special defense vehicles.

Handloom Textiles

Handloom industry is the most important source of employment generation in rural areas after agriculture itself.Handloom Textile Weaving includes shawl making, yarn spinning, Khadi weaving and related tasks. Weaving is an act of passing threads or strands of material under and over each other.
Handloom weaving in India is still largely a household enterprise, as well as being predominantly a rural activity (with the exception of Maharashtra), providing employment to the largest number of people next only to agriculture.

Methylated Spirit

Methylated Spirits (or Denatured alcohol) is ethanol that has additives to make it more poisonous or unpalatable, and thus, undrinkable.

Uses for methylated spirits.

- It's great as a glass cleaner! If you're going to use it in hot conditions, dilute it with water.
- In fuel stoves - methylated spirits burns very cleanly; a little too cleanly in fact as it can be hard to see the flame etc,.

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Recycling Glass Container

Glass recycling is the process of turning waste glass into usable products.

Glass containers are 100 percent recyclable and can be made into new glass containers infinitely.

The glass recycling process produces a crushed-glass product called 'cullet'. Cullet is often mixed with virgin glass materials to produce new products.

Recycled glass is also used as building aggregate, in water filtration and for building materials.

Cyanide Recycling

Ion exchange resins can potentially be applied in cyanide recycling to address growing environmental concerns over the use of cyanide during gold extraction.

The SXCN Recovery Process is a safe, environmentally-sound method for removing, recovering and recycling the cyanide in effluents from gold and silver leaching processes.

Cyanide is also used in low concentrations as a flotation reagent to aid in the recovery of base metals, such as lead, copper, and zinc.

Tuesday, July 19, 2011


Machine embroidery is a process whereby a sewing machine or embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles.

There are two main types of machine embroidery. The first, free-motion sewing machine embroidery, uses a basic zigzag sewing machine. The second, computerized machine embroidery, uses an embroidery machine or sewing/embroidery machine.

There are two things needed to keep embroidery from puckering and shrinking over time. First is the selection of garment itself. Also pique fabrics.

Highly durable, flexible, and even washable multilayer electronic circuitry can be constructed on textile substrates, using conductive yarns and suitably packaged components for the development of e-broidery as a means of creating computationally active textiles.

School Uniform

A school uniform is an outfit—a set of standardized clothes—worn primarily for an educational institution. Uniform is an excellent source to control and minimize fights and quarrels at school. Children following the same dress code won’t tease their class fellows for not wearing up to date and trendy fashionable clothes.
A large portion of the school uniform retail market is unorganised and fragmented compared to the uniform market internationally where organised retail brands have a strong presence.


Garment is a basic need for every human being.

A clear complete demonstration of three basic hand Stitches used when making a garment explains the basting stitch, catch stitch, and thread tracing.

The clusters of garments stitching industry exist predominantly in Lahore, Karachi, Sialkot and Faisalabad.

Indonesia is developing a reputation and a market niche for high-end, higher-quality garments.

Demand for embellished garments—ones distinguished by hand embroidery, special printing, destructive washing, etc.—is high in the United States, Europe, Japan, and other developed markets.

Fabric Dyeing and Finishing Unit

Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material through a dye (colour).
Colour is applied to fabric by different methods of dyeing for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process. 
The demand for processed fabric is rising in accordance with the increase in production and export of value added products i.e. apparels and made-ups.At present, cotton constitutes 78 percent of the total fibre consumed by the textile industries. There is demand for cotton dyeing units as the consumption of cotton textiles has increased .

Friday, July 15, 2011


Bath towels are woven pieces of fabric either cotton or cotton-polyester that are used to absorb moisture on the body after bathing.

Towels constructed with loops of thick yarns are more absorbent.

Drying ability is also measured by a towel’s thickness.

Towels can be piece dyed or yarn dyed

The reusable cotton towels hotspot is the laundering process (heat, soap and electricity), with around 54% of the environmental load.


Collar knitting is directly related to knitted T-shirts.

Collar knitting requires specialized machinery (flat bed collar knitting machines) which all the manufacturers of T-shirts can not afford to buy.

USA is the largest importing country with a share of 29% and a total value of $7.4 billion.

Germany is the second largest importer in this category with imports of $4.5 billion.

Japan is the third largest importer with total imports of $3.8 billion.

Zinc Recycling

Zinc is the 27th most common element in the earth's crust. More importantly, zinc is fully recyclable. Zinc can be recycled indefinitely - without loss of its physical or chemical properties.

Approximately 60% of the zinc produced worldwide originates from mined ores and the remaining 40% from recycled or secondary zinc. The level of recycling increases each year, in step with progress in zinc production and recycling technology.

Zinc is recycled at all stages of production and use, including scrap that arises during the production of galvanized steel sheet, scrap generated during manufacturing and installation processes and from end-of-life products.

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Mussel farming

  • The common name mussel is used for members of several families of clams or bivalvia mollusca, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
  • Mussels feed by filtrating particles out of the water.
  • The potential ecological and environmental benefits of mussel farming to improve coastal water quality have been scientifically known for years.
  • Only recently has mussel farming been suggested as an operational tool for society to recycle nutrients from coastal waters back to land.

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Cotton Bags Manufacturing

Cotton bags of different specification are exported to various countries in large numbers.
Cotton bags produced from greige cloth have lower margin of profit, whereas, bags produced from dyed cloth have reasonable profitability.
Exports of woven cotton bags from Pakistan have increased during the last few years. The availability of raw material and cheap skilled manpower are favoring factors for the stitching projects.


Circular knitting or knitting in the round is a form of knitting that creates a seamless tube. When knitting circularly, the knitting is cast on and the circle of stitches is joined. Knitting industry's performance this year seems particularly eye-catching, whether the industry is running the first half of the data, or the recent knitting equipment and knitted fabrics, knitted apparel sales, people are lifted.
The quantity of knitwear required to cover the global requirement for clothing as protection against the elements is covered to some degree by the circular knitting machine capacity available in the world today.

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Power Alcohol

When ethyl alcohol is used as fuel in internal combustion engine, it is called as "power alcohol". Generally ethyl alcohol is used as its 5-25% mixture with petrol.
Power alcohol is cheaper & cleaner fuel than petrol.
In 2010 Brazil produced 26.2 billion liters (6.92 billion U.S. liquid gallons), representing 30.1% of the world's total ethanol used as fuel.

Country Liquor

Country liquor, the cheapest form of alcoholic beverages, could soon give consumers a different kind of kick with the (BIS) Bureau of Indian Standards setting fresh manufacturing norms for country liquor.

Country liquor is made from a variety of raw materials and has different names in different parts of the country.

Country liquor continues to go strong in northern States like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab, while Maharashtra is one of the bigger States in the west.

Saturday, July 09, 2011


The word Brandy comes from the Dutch word brandewijn, ("burnt wine"), which is how the straightforward Dutch traders who introduced it to Northern Europe from Southern France and Spain in the 16th century described wine that had been "burnt," or boiled, in order to distill it.

Brandy, like Rum and Tequila, is an agricultural spirit. Unlike grain spirits such as Whisky, Vodka, and Gin, which are made throughout the year from grain that can be harvested and stored, Brandy is dependent on the seasons, the ripening of the base fruit, and the production of the wine from which it is made.

Cognac is the best known type of Brandy in the world, a benchmark by which most other Brandies are judged.


Bed Linen is an important value-added sub-sector of textile sector. Bed Linen products include bed sheets, pillow covers, quilts, etc.

China is the main exporter of bed Linen. Pakistan which had the second largest share.

USA. has been the biggest importer of Bed Linen and Germany was second.

The clusters of Bed Linen stitching industry exist predominantly in Karachi, Faisalabad, Lahore and Multan. Most of the Bed Linen manufacturers are based in these major cities.

World trade of bed wear & linens is reported under different SITC codes


Viscose fabric is a type of hybrid nylon fabric. Viscose is used to make nylon and cellophane. Many jackets and outwear clothing are made of Viscose.

Rayon is the oldest commercial manmade fiber. The U. S. Trade Commission defines rayon as "manmade textile fibers and filaments composed of regenerated cellulose"

China is by far the largest exporter of grey viscose fabrics, followed by Indonesia.

The world viscose staple fiber (VSF) production and demand has been shown to decline over the last several years worldwide. However, when the eastern European and former Soviet Union countries are excluded from this analysis, world VSF production and demand have actually
Increased at a reasonable rate over the last several years .

Fabric Weaving

Weaving is the interlacing of yarns in a regular order to create a fabric . Weaving sector is comprised of two types of setups. One is the organized mill sector and the other is the unorganized non-mill sector. The non-mill-weaving sector, which is also called the Auto/Power Loom sector, supplies the majority of the fabric in the country.
Weaving sector is one of the most important textile sub-sectors. The exports of woven fabrics and other woven made ups comprise a major portion of textile exports from Pakistan.The world demand for textiles is rising at around 2.5% , due to which there is a greater opportunity for rise in exports from Pakistan.

Friday, July 08, 2011

Mushroom Marketing

Mushroom cultivation is a well-established and profitable biotechnological process carried out worldwide on a large or small scale.

Many by-products from agricultural production and food processing can be used as growing media in mushroom production.

The productivity of mushroom is higher than any crop.

Mushrooms are very popular in most of the developed countries and they are becoming popular in many developing countries like India.

Cold Storage Fish

Cold storage has been at the heart of many attempts, world wide, to provide fishers with greater control of their product and the price they receive for it.

The solar powered cold storage systems, used to store fish for sale, were also linked to expanded opportunities for income generation through the establishment of a local fish market at the site of the cold storage equipment.

Total cold storage holdings of fish and shell fish in the USA alone were about 150,000 tonnes.

Thursday, July 07, 2011

Dog Breeding

Dog breeding is the practice of mating selected specimens with the intent to maintain or produce specific qualities and characteristics. ‘Breed standards’ often include exaggerated and unnatural physical characteristics that are detrimental to the dogs’ health and quality of life.
Breeding, marketing and sale of dogs has come to stay as a high-level commercial venture in India, involving thousands of breeders and pet shops in a multi-crore industry.

Silk powder

  • Silk powder is a natural product derived from the cocoon of the silk worm.The cocoon is ground down into a fine powder that is pink or yellow in color. The powder retains many natural amino acids and lipids throughout the process which are very beneficial to the skin and body.
  • Silk, in its liquid, powder, and fabric form, has wonderful , amazing and unique properties and benefits. Derived from pure silk worm cocoon, quality Silk-powder is silk that is synthetically ground down and processed to remove impurities.
  • It is then converted into a fine, yellowish or pinkish fine powder using a sophisticated technology that retains the silk protein's natural amino acids and lipids, which benefit the skin and body.

Wednesday, July 06, 2011


Ultramarine is a blue pigment consisting primarily of a double silicate of aluminium and sodium with some sulfides or sulfates, and occurring in nature as a proximate component of lapis lazuli.

China clay kaolin has been the traditional raw material for UB pigment synthetic production.

Ultramarine blue is a historical pigment having been found in Egyptian tomb paintings. Synthetic ultramarine was produced at the beginnig of the nineteenth Century.

Ultramarines are HYDROPHOBIC, or ‘water hating’, and often do not mix well with water.

Ultramarine blue made with Asturian refined hard kaolin from deposits associated with Armorican quartzite.

Chromium Dioxide

Chromium dioxide or chromium(IV) oxide is a synthetic magnetic substance once widely used in magnetic tape emulsion. Chromium (IV) oxide has a tetragonal unit cell with a rutile-type structure.
Among the magnetic materials being actively investigated for their potential use in such devices CrO2 is one of the most attractive because it is a halfmetal fully spin polarized at the Fermi level with a Curie temperature well above room temperature and a magnetic moment of 2 μB per  formula unit.

Mobile Money

Mobile Money – allows any Home Banking user to access their eligible accounts from a mobile phone.

Mobile money platform provides real-time remittance transactions and feedback (including instant SMS receipts), it can help build trust and promote savings and repayment behavior.

All transactions between the mobile device and the back end server are secured via SSL/TLS. To prevent sensitive information from being compromised, no data is stored on the mobile device.

Tuesday, July 05, 2011

Copper Slag

Copper slag is an abrasive blasting grit made of granulated slag from metal smelting processes.

Copper slag is one of the materials that is considered as a waste material which could have a promising future in construction industry as partial substitute of either cement or aggregates.

Copper slag is widely used as an abrasive media to remove rust, old coating and other impurities in dry abrasive blasting due to its high hardness, high density and low free silica content.


A chemically synthesised chromosome has for the first time been transplanted into a cell to produce a synthetic bacterium.

The creation of the synthetic cell is part of an effort to design a "minimal cell" containing only the most basic genome required for life.

Using a computer analogy, one can think of a cell’s cytoplasm as the hardware and the genome as the operating system. A synthetic cell is created by synthesizing a genome and installing it into a recipient cytoplasm.

Biology, an emerging engineering discipline to program cell behaviors as easily as we program computers.

Synthetic biology will improve our quantitative understanding of natural biological processes and will also have biotechnology applications in areas such as biosensing, synthesis of pharmaceutical products, molecular fabrication of biomaterials and nanostructures, and tissue engineering.


Wheat-straw waste is a natural byproduct of the industrial fractionation of wheat straw. Wheat straw is renewable, widely distributed, available locally, moldable, anisotropic, hydroscopic, recyclable, versatile, non-abrasive, porous, viscoelastic, easily available in many forms, biodegradable, combustible, compostible, and reactive.
Currently a most important application of cellulases and hemicellulases in the pulp and paper industry is the biobleaching of pulp, the production of dissolving pulp, the treatment of wastewater and the deinking of recycled waste paper.

Saturday, July 02, 2011

Sodium triopolyphosphate

Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) is a sodium salt of triphosphoric acid that has the appearance of white crystal powder. It is odorless and is water soluble. Sodium tripolyphosphate is a strong cleaning ingredient that typically can rid dishes and fabrics of soil and spots.


Radiology recycles all x-ray film and captures silver for recycling from their silver recovery units.

When an X-ray film has been exposed, it must be processed in order to produce a
permanent visible radiographic image that can be kept without deterioration for a number of

The waste X-ray/ photographic films contain 1.5 - 2 % (w/w) black metallic silver which is
recovered and reused. Around 18-20% of the world's silver needs are supplied by recycling
photographic waste.

X-ray film processors are used throughout the medical industry by doctors, hospitals, imaging centers, health and medical clinics, chiropractors and veterinarians.


A transformer is a static piece of apparatus used for transferring power from one circuit to another at a different voltage, but without change in frequency. I t can raise or lower the voltage with a corresponding decrease or increase of current.

Transformer business in Malaysia is very volatile and involves stiff competition in the market.

India is exporting transformers to over 50 countries covering USA, Europe, South Africa, Cyprus, Syria, Iraq and other Middle East and Far East countries all over the world. India is self-reliant in respect of the resources for prime materials and testing facilities.