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Thursday, May 31, 2012

Phadebas

Phadebas

                    
  • Phadebas is an abbreviation of Pharmacia Diagnostics Biologically Active Substances.
  • Phadebas is a substrate used for both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the alpha-Amylase enzyme. The active component of Phadebas is DSM-P, microspheres in which a blue dye has been chemically bound. 
  • Phadebas is used in a wide range of applications from quality control tests for food & beverages to detection of saliva stains in forensic investigations.
  • The Phadebas Amylase Test (PAT) was originally developed by Pharmacia Diagnostics and first launched in 1970.

Phytosterols



  • Phytosterols are plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol that act in the intestine to lower Cholesterol absorption.
  • Phytosterols are widely employed in different sectors: As food additive, In medicine, In pharmacy,  In biotechnology, In cosmetics.
  • The intake of naturally occurring phytosterols ranges between ~150-450 mg/day depending on eating habit.
  • Free phytosterols extracted from oils are insoluble in water, relatively insoluble in oil, and soluble in alcohols.
  • The most commonly occurring phytosterols in the human diet are β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol which account for approximately 65%, 30% and 3% of diet contents,respectively.

Wednesday, May 30, 2012

Flame Retardants




  • Flame retardants are chemicals used in thermoplastics, thermosets, textiles and coatings that inhibit or resist the spread of fire. These can be separated into several different classes of chemicals: Minerals such as aluminium hydroxide ATH, magnesium hydroxide MDH, huntite and hydromagnesite , various hydrates, red phosphorus, and boron compounds, mostly borates.
  • The annual consumption of flame retardants is currently over 1.5 million tonnes per year, which is the equivalent of a sales volume of approx. 1.9 billion Euro (2.4 billion US-$).

Bio Based Acetone


  • The bio-acetone that is co-produced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone.
  • During bio-butanol production, a large amount of acetone is generated as a co-product. Corn-based acetone could displace petroleum-based acetone.
  • The conversion of fermentable sugar to butanol produces acetone and ethanol as co-products which further complicates the allocation process.
  • Acetone is the major co-product of the bio-butanol plant.

Tuesday, May 29, 2012

Vanadium oxides




  • In recent years, there has been and increased interest in synthesizing quasi one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of Vanadium oxidess and their derivative compounds . 
  • This is due to their potential applications such as catalysts , cathode materials for lithium batteries , high-energy density lithium batteries , chemical sensors , electric field-effect transistors,  and electrochemical and optical devices.
  • A low-cost, a high-yielding of Vanadium oxides nanobelts  2 was simply synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of our (NH4)2V3O8, 1, with deionized water at 200 °C for 3 days.

Aromatic Polyamides

  • A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers of amides joined by peptide bonds. 
  • Advantages of aromatic polyamides:good mechanical behaviour, products can be used within a wide temperature interval, good dimensional stability
  • Aramid fiber characteristics Are good resistance to abrasion, good resistance to organic solvents, nonconductive, no melting point, low flammability, sensitive to ultraviolet radiation
  • The aramids have nowadays found applications in: Heat-protection products; cut-protection products; ballistic-protection products; tires; transmission belts; friction product; sealing materials (gaskets and braided packings); adhesives; ropes and cables
  • The most common methods for the preparation of aromatic polyamides are the reaction of diacid dichlorides with diamines at low temperatures or direct condensation reactions in solution of aromatic diacids with diamines at high temperatures. 

Synthetic Methanol





Synthetic Methanol
Methanol (CH3OH) can be produced synthetically from CO2 and hydrogen. Ultimately, emerging processes to recover atmospheric CO2 will provide the required carbon that can entirely balance the CO2 emissions at the tailpipe that result from the internal combustion of synthetic methanol.
Synthetic methanol is better suited to spark-ignition combustion than today’s liquid fuels, deliveringbetter performance and thermal efficiencies, due to its higher octane rating giving it better resistance to‘knock’. As a result, it is a fuel that will benefit the motorists in terms of driving experience











Bio-based Para-Xylene

Bio-based Para-Xylene

                                        
  • The p-xylene, which Virent had tradenamed BioFormPX, is identical to p-xylene produced via pertroleum-based processes and can be used as a drop-in replacement in the value chain.
  • Virent, a catalytic chemistry firm says it has succesffully produced para-xylene (p-xylene) from plant-based sugars.
  • Conversion of p-xylene into terephthalic acid is accomplished by a single bacterial strain that produces all of the requisite enzymes.
  • Bio-based paraxylene provides an alternative feedstock for the PET supply chain.

Inorganic Polymers




  • Inorganic polymers are polymers with a skeletal structure that does not include carbon atoms. 
  • Polymers containing inorganic and organic components are named hybrid polymers.
  • One of the best known examples is polydimethylsiloxane, otherwise known commonly as silicone rubber. It has a repeat unit based on silicon and oxygen.
  • Inorganic Polymers are materials generally rich in aluminosilicates, conventionally  formed by alkali hydroxide or alkali silicate activation of a solid precursor. 

Friday, May 25, 2012

Polyisocyanates


  • The Polyisocyanate Compositions Are Useful in the Preparation Of Elastomeric Products
  • When there are two or more isocyanate groups on a molecule (diisocyanates or polyisocyanates), they can link together with certain other molecules to form long chained polymers called polyurethanes.
  • Polyisocyanate is insoluble in water.
  • Quantifying polyisocyanates is much more complex.There are currently three potential approaches used to quantify and express concentrations of polyisocyanates; the pure product mass, the NCO group concentration or mass, and the monomer equivalent mass.
  • Polyurethanes based on aliphatic polyisocyanates are well known for their outstanding properties, especially for their exceptional resistance to weathering.




Bio-based Isoprene




  • Using sugars from renewable sources such as sugar cane, corn or switchgrass, the scientists have been able to create a “green” isoprene, trademarked as BioIsoprene.
  • Goodyear’s forward-looking concept tyre made with BioIsoprene Technology was awarded the prestigious “Environmental Achievement of the Year Award” at the second Tyre Technology International Awards for Innovation and Excellence ceremony – the world’s biggest celebration of endeavour in the field of tyres.
  • The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. and Genencor, a division of Danisco A/S, have established a research collaboration to develop an integrated fermentation, recovery and purification system for producing BioIsoprene™ product from renewable raw materials. 

Thursday, May 24, 2012

பெண் புத்தி மாலை

பெண் புத்தி மாலை

The Hindu : NATIONAL / TAMIL NADU : Settle dues to suppliers, trade body tells TANGEDCO

The Hindu : NATIONAL / TAMIL NADU : Settle dues to suppliers, trade body tells TANGEDCO

Glucaric Acid


Glucaric Acid

  • Salicylic acid is used to treat many skin disorders, such as acne, dandruff, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis of the skin and scalp, calluses, corns, common warts, and plantar warts, depending on the dosage form strength of the preparation.
  •  White, needle crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called Glucaric acid.
  • Saccharic acid, also called glucaric acid, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H10O8
  • Agrochemicals industry to cross $5 bn

    Agrochemicals industry to cross $5 bn

    Wednesday, May 23, 2012

    Bio-based succinic acid



    • "The extent of market penetration depends mainly on the price competitiveness of biobased succinic acid relative to the petrochemical alternatives".
    • BASF and Purac, a subsidiary of CSM NV, will form a joint venture to produce bio-based succinic acid. The companies have been conducting research under a joint development agreement on bio-based succinic acid since 2009.

    Bio-Based LacticAcid

    Bio-based LacticAcid
                                 
    • Biobased lactic acid is a chemical which is produced by carbohydrate fermentation.  The fermentation process is carried out by various Lactobacillus strains rather than by chemical means.  
    •  Lactic acid, like succinic acid, is a base material for biobased products which is intended to offset the petroleum use.  Lactic acid can be used to make a variety of products which include poly lactic acid, propylene glycol, and lactate esters.
    •  Poly lactic acid, or PLA, is a useful homopolymer of lactic acid involved in plastics and other material production.  Lactate esters are used for biodegradable and nontoxic solvents.

    Glycidyl Esters



    Glycidyl Esters.
    • Glycidyl esters were found in significant quantities in some commercial vegetable oils.
    • In the human body the glycidyl esters are metabolized into free glycidol, a compound that is classified as possibly carcinogenic by IARC
    • 3-MCPD esters as well as glycidyl esters may develop during the refining of edible fats and oils and therefore occur in foods, which are produced by using these fats and oils. Baby food, hazelnut spreads or biscuit fillings are good examples
    • Glycidyl Esters Are Prepared By re-acting the Sodium Salt Of the Appropriate Carboxylic acid with epichlorohydrin




    Tuesday, May 22, 2012

    Bio-Based Isobutanol

    Bio-Based Isobutanol




    • Isobutanol (IUPAC nomenclature: 2-methyl-1-propanol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH. This colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic smell is mainly used as  a solvent.Its is omers include n-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol, all of which are more important industrially.
    • Isobutanol is also produced naturally during the fermentation of carbohydrates and may also be a byproduct of the decay process of organic matter.[citation needed] Isobutanol, along with other low molecular weight alcohols can also be produced by some engineered microorganisms such as corynebacterium. 
    • A genetically engineered strain of the bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum converted cellulose to isobutanol via iso butyraldehyde



    Monday, May 21, 2012

    Bio-based Methanol


    Bio-based Methanol



    • As a fuel, bio-methanol can either be blended with petrol, or it can be used as a feedstock for other environmentally friendly fuels. It is also used for a variety of non-fuel applications including plastics and paints.
    • As well as being green, the great benefit of bio-methanol is that it can be used in similar engine and fuel systems to those found in today's cars. It can be stored, transported and sold in much the same way as petrol and diesel.
    • Bio-methanol can also be used as a chemical building block for a range of future-oriented products, including bio-MTBE, bio-DME, bio-hydrogen and synthetic biofuels (synthetic hydrocarbons). This makes it even easier for fuel manufacturers to achieve EU targets.

    Propane Dehydrogenation


    • Propane Dehydrogenation - A catalytic process that converts propane into propylene and hydrogen (byproduct).
    • Engines, oxy-gas torches, barbecues, portable stoves, and residential central heating and cooking units in recreational vehicles use propane as a fuel source.
    • Dehydrogenation Process - This process converts propane to propylene on a fixed-bed of chromia-alumina catalyst in order to recycle the unconverted propane and leave propylene as the net product. The chemical reaction occurs during the gaseous phase at high temperatures (ranging from 540 to 820 degrees C) that causes an endothermic equilibrium reaction. 
    • Propane dehydrogenation (PDH) is a key processing step in the on purpose production of propylene from propane feedstock. Propylene is the world’s 2nd largest petrochemical commodity and attributes its demand growth largely to the further production of polypropylene, which is used in a wide range of every day products from grocery packaging to weather resistant clothing

    Acrylic polymers

    Acrylic Polymers


    • An acrylate polymer belongs to a group of polymers which could be referred to generally as plastics. They are noted for their transparency and resistance to breakage and elasticity. Also commonly known as acrylics or polyacrylates.
    • Typical acrylate monomers used to form acrylate polymers are: acrylic acid, methyl methacrylate and acrylonitrile.
    • Polymethyl methacrylate, an acrylate polymer familiar to consumers is the clear break resistant glass or sheeting sold in hardware stores as acrylic glass or under the trade name Plexiglas.
    • Acrylic Polymers with hydrophilic groups may be prepared that convert to a soft elastic gel by absorbing water. Such a polymer has been applied to dentistry for use as an elastic lining material for dentures.

    Polyphosphazenes

    Polyphosphazenes


                                   
    • Polyphosphazenes are a class of inorganic polymers with the repeat unit (-RR'P=N-). The substituents R,R' are usually alkoxy, amino, (R2N), or halogens (such as chloride or fluoride).
    • Polyphosphazenes are typically prepared by the thermal ring-opening polymerization of hexachlorophosphazene (Cl2PN)3 followed by esterification of the intermediate poly(dichlorophosphazene) with either amines or sodium salts of alcohols.
    • Most polyphosphazenes are colorless and exhibit high thermal stability, although they are somewhat sensitive to base hydrolysis.
    • Polyphosphazenes are used as flame retardants, additives, performance polymers, and in specialty applications. 

    Saturday, May 19, 2012

    Polyetheramine

    Polyetheramine

                             

    • Polyetheramines are an extremely versatile product range.  Mainly used to increase flexibility, toughness, hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity (depending on the product used), they also offer various reactivities, good temperature stabilities, are essentially colourless and have a low viscosity. 
    • Polyetheramines offer lower toxicity, reduced tendency to discolour and as the amines can be hindered they can be less reactive.  Hindering the amines allows slower reactions e.g. with epoxy resins and better colour stability.
    • Useful for a wide range of applications that include epoxy curing, polyurea and polyamides in a range of coatings, ink resins, adhesives, elastomers, hot melt adhesives, sealants, engineering plastics.

    Friday, May 18, 2012

    Ethylidene Norbornene


    • Ethylidene Norbornene (ENB) is generally manufactured from a reaction of two other chemicals (cyclopentadiene and 1,3 Butadiene) in a chemical plant.
    • EPDM rubber is used in wide variety of applications, ranging from motor vehicles to food containers
    • At ambient temperature and pressure, ENB is a colorless liquid with an extremely strong odor. 
    • The flash point for ENB is approximately 30-40ºC. 
    • Ethylidene Norbornene has a Fast cure, good tensile strength

    Calcium Silicate




    • Calcium silicate (often referred to by its shortened trade name Cal-Sil or Calsil) is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and sometimes formulated 2CaO.SiO2. 
    • It is one of group of compounds obtained by reacting calcium oxide and silica in various ratios.
    • Calcium silicate is commonly used as a safe alternative to asbestos for high temperature insulation materials. Industrial grade piping and equipment insulation is often fabricated from calcium silicate.

    Wednesday, May 16, 2012

    Syndiotactic polystyrene

    Syndiotactic polystyrene




    • Theoretically, there are three structural forms of polystyrene that can be prepared from styrene monomer: atactic (phenyl rings randomly oriented about the polymer chain), syndiotactic (phenyl rings on alternating sides about the polymer chain), and isotactic (phenyl rings all on one side of the polymer chain).
    • Syndiotactic polystyrene (SPS) is a new form of polystyrene polymer first synthesized in 1985 according to the claims of Idemitsu. 

    Monday, May 14, 2012

    Pterostilbene




    • Pterostilbene is a stilbenoid chemically related to resveratrol and is found in blueberries and grapes. 
    • It belongs to the group of phytoalexins, agents produced by plants to fight infections
    • pterostilbene, a compound in the berries, may prove to be a potent weapon in the battle against heart disease
    • Pterostilbene has advantages over resveratrol: superior biological activity, better oral bioavailability, and slower metabolism in the body.
    • pTeroWhite® is a skin care active based on pterostilbene that is said to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and skin-lightening properties
    • Pterostilbene has been shown to have diverse pharmocological actions including a cholesterol lowering effect, enhanced insulin sensitivity, calorie restriction and increased life span

    Anthocyanidin

    Anthocyanidin



    • Anthocyanidins are common plant pigments. They are the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins based on the flavylium ion or 2-phenylchromenylium, which is a type of oxonium ion (chromenylium is referred also to as benzopyrylium).[1] They form a large group of polymethine dye.
    • In particular anthocyanidins are salt derivatives of the 2-phenylchromenylium cation, also known as flavylium cation.
    • Anthocyanidins have flavylium cations, a lewis acid will interact with buckminsterfullerence which is a resonance and canonical structure as lewis basis.
    • Among polyphenols, the anthocyanidins and their glycosylated derivatives, anthocyanins, abundantly present in pigmented fruits and vegetables.

    Cephalosporin




    • The cephalosporins are a class of ß-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
    • Together with cephamycins they constitute a subgroup of ß-lactam antibiotics called cephems.
    • Cephalosporins are indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by bacteria susceptible to this particular form of antibiotic. 

    Friday, May 11, 2012

    Hydrogen Cyanide


    • Hydrogen cyanide (with the historical common name of Prussic acid) is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. 
    • It is a colorless, extremely poisonous liquid that boils slightly above room temperature at 26 °C (79 °F). 
    • Hydrogen cyanide is a linear molecule, with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen.
    • A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid. The salts of hydrogen cyanide are known as cyanides.
    • An electrochemical measuring cell for detecting hydrogen cyanide by means of at least one measuring electrode and a counter electrode disposed in an electrolyte.

    Thursday, May 10, 2012

    Lithium Metatitanate






    • Lithium titanate (full name lithium metatitanate) is a compound containing lithium and titanium.
    • It is an off-white powder at room temperature and has the chemical formula Li2TiO3.
    • It is the anode component of the fast recharging Lithium-titanate battery.
    • It is also used as an additive in porcelain enamels and ceramic insulating bodies based on titanates. It is preferred as a flux due to its stability.
    • The lithium-titanate battery is currently being used in battery electric vehicles and computer batteries.
    • Uses in Sintering :-The sintering process is taking a metal powder, putting it into a mold and heating it to below its melting point.







    Wednesday, May 09, 2012

    Pyrocatechol




                                         
    • Catechol, also known as pyrocatechol or 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H4(OH)2. 
    • It is the ortho isomer of the three isomeric benzenediols. This colorless compound occurs naturally in trace amounts. About 20 million kg are produced annually, mainly as a precursor to pesticides, flavors, and fragrances.
    • Catechol occurs as feathery white crystals that are very rapidly soluble in water.
    • Catechol is produced industrially by the hydroxylation of phenol using hydrogen peroxide.
    • Previously, catechol has been produced by hydrolysis of 2-substituted phenols, especially 2-chlorophenol, with hot aqueous solutions containing alkali metal hydroxides. Its methyl ether derivative, guaiacol, converts to catechol via hydrolysis of the CH3-O bond as promoted by hydriodic acid.

    Ethaboxam


    • The Combination Of Ethaboxam And Transgenic Plants Provides Enhanced Plant Protection In Controlling Plant Disease 
    • The Colour Occurs to be Very Pale Yellow And Physical State is an Solid Powder 
    • The type Of Pesticide Used in Ethaboxam is Fungicide
    • Ethaboxam is Stable at 54°C for 14 days
    • Exposure Assessments Are :- Acute,Chronic,Cancer
    • According to the non-US label, three to five applications may be applied to grapes (inclusive of all grapevine cultivars and grapevine nursery plants) using a ground equipment  sprayer. Alternatively, the end-use product application may be supplemented by tank mixing with copper oxychloride 


    Tuesday, May 08, 2012

    Phloroglucinol





    • Phloroglucinol is a benzenetriol. It is an organic compound that is used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and explosives.And alo used in cosmetics, textiles, paints dyeing industries.
    • Phloroglucinol was originally isolated from bark of fruit trees. 
    • It is used in as a reagent for pentoses, pentosans, glycuronates, hydrochloric acid in gastric juice
    • It is an excellent bone decalcifying agent and a floral preservative. 
    • Phloroglucinol is mainly used as a coupling agent in printing. It links diazo dyes to give a fast black. 
    • It is also used as a treatment for gallstones, spasmodic pain and other related gastrointestinal disorders.
    • Phloroglucinol is Slightly Soluble In Water
    • Pholoroglucinol is White To Yellowish White Crystalline Powder




    Monday, May 07, 2012

    Butyl Lithium

    Butyl Lithium


    • Butyllithium may refer to one of three isomeric organolithium reagents used in chemical synthesis: n-Butyllithium,  sec-Butyllithium, tert-Butyllithium.
    • n-Butyllithium (abbreviated n-BuLi) is an organolithium reagent. It is widely used as a polymerization initiator in the production of elastomers such as polybutadiene or styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS).
    • Butyllithium is commercially available as solutions (15%, 25%, 2 M, 2.5 M, 10 M, etc.) in alkanes such as pentane, hexanes, and heptanes. Solutions in diethyl ether and THF can be prepared, but are not stable enough for storage.

    Capsidiol

    capsidiol


    • Capsidiol is a terpenoid compound that accumulates in tobacco Nicotiana tabacum and chili pepper Capsicum annuum in response to fungal infection.
    • Capsidiol is categorized under the broad term of phytoalexin, a class of low molecular weight plant secondary metabolites that are produced during infection.
    • Capsidiol is produced in the pepper fruit Capsicum annuum or tobacco Nicotiana tabacum after infection by the oomycete water-mold Phytophthora capsici. 

    Neopentyl Glycol

    Neopentyl glycol

    • Neopentyl glycol (IUPAC name 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol) is an organic chemical compound. It is used in the synthesis of polyesters, paints, lubricants, and plasticizers. When used in the manufacture of polyesters, it enhances the stability of the product towards heat, light, and water. 
    • By esterification reaction with fatty or carboxylic acids, synthetic lubricating esters with reduced potential for oxidation or hydrolysis, compared to natural esters, can be produced.
    • Neopentyl glycol(NPG) is synthesized industrially by the aldol reaction of formaldehyde and isobutyraldehyde. This creates the intermediate hydroxypivaldehyde, which can be converted to neopentyl glycol with either excess formaldehyde or catalytic hydrogenation of the aldehyde group to an alcohol group.
    • NPG is used primarily in base resins for coatings. Important uses are also found in hydraulic fluids, synthetic lubricant oils and aircraft engine lubricants. Other outlets include textiles, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and plasticisers. NPG is shipped as flake, molten and slurry.
    • Neopentyl Glycol is a white crystalline material in flakes or colourless liquid in molten from.

    Friday, May 04, 2012

    Stanols




    • Stanol ester is a heterogeneous group of chemical Compounds known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol in blood 
    • Plant stanol esters are found naturally occurring in small quantities in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, cereals, legumes, and vegetable oils.
    • Products containing plant stanols and sterols are not recommended for children under the age of 5 years, breastfeeding or pregnant women 
    • Daily intake of 2-3 g sterols and stanols can lower coronary heart disease risk by 20% over a lifetime.
    • Phytosterols play a major role in pharmaceuticals for production of therapeutic steroids, in nutrition as anti-cholesterol additives and in cosmetics. 

    Thursday, May 03, 2012

    Polyvinyl butyral




    • Polyvinyl butyral (or PVB) is a resin usually used for applications that require strong binding, optical clarity, adhesion to many surfaces, toughness and flexibility. 
    • It is prepared from polyvinyl alcohol by reaction with butyraldehyde. 
    • The major application is laminated safety glass for automobile windshields. Tradenames for PVB-films include GlasNovations, Butacite, Saflex, S-Lec, and Trosifol.In the structure of PVB resin, there are three functional groups: butyral, hydroxyl and acetyl group. 
    • The physical properties of PVB resin can be adjusted by controlling the molecular structure of PVB.  

    Wednesday, May 02, 2012

    Biobutanediol




    • 1,4-Butanediol colorless viscous liquid is derived from butane by placement of alcohol groups at each end of the chain. It is one of four stable isomers of butanediol.
    • They Are Used In The Manufacture Of Polyurethanes, Polybutyleneterephthalate
    • It is also used as a recreational drug known by some users as "One Comma Four", "One Four Bee" or "One Four B-D-O".
    • The main applications for butanediol are the production of cellular plastics, thermoplastic polyesters Adhesives, Agricultural, Coatings, Pharmaceuticals, Plasticizers,Polyurethanes And hot-melt adhesives.
    • 1,4-Butanediol is a colorless and almost odorless liquid. This hygroscopic diol is soluble in water, alcohols, esters, ketones, glycol ethers and glycol ether acetates; immiscible in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and diethylether.

    Nitrobenzene

    Nitrobenzene




    • Nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5NO2.
    • It is a water-insoluble pale yellow oil with an almond-like odor. 
    • It freezes to give greenish-yellow crystals. It is produced on a large scale as a precursor to aniline. 
    • Although occasionally used as a flavoring or perfume additive, nitrobenzene is highly toxic in large quantities. 
    • In the laboratory, it is occasionally used as a solvent, especially for electrophilic reagents.