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Monday, December 31, 2012



  • Synonyms of quinoline are benzopyridine, benzo pyridine, leucol, leukol, 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, 1-benzine, chinoline, chinoleine, Chinolin.
  • It is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound and its chemical formula is C9H7N.
  • Raw material of quinoline is coal tar, aniline or quinine.
  • The quinoline has melting point and boiling point, melting point range 26 to 28 Celsius and the boiling point is 237 Celsius then the specific cavity is 1.08 to 1.095.
  • Quinoline and substituted quinolines are prepared by reacting aromatic amine or coal tar with substituted acrolein at evaluated temperatures in mineral oil.

Friday, December 28, 2012



  • An anhydrous calcium sulfate, Mineral CaSO4 which is in the orthorhombic crystal form with three directions of cleavage parallel to the three planes of symmetry.
  • Anhydrite is found as a constituent of Evaporite deposits, typically associated with gypsum, alkali halides and carbonates. 
  • Naturally occurring anhydrite is a rare mineral since it readily transforms into gypsum when exposed to water. Reverse process is also possible, creating anhydrite by dehydrating gypsum.
  • By the year of 2017, the global market for gypsum and anhydrite is forecast to reach 211.6 million metric tons.

Lithium Carbonate

  • Lithium Carbonate is a white, light, alkaline powder with molecular formula Li2CO3 and molecular weight 73.89.
  • Lithium carbonate is soluble in water
  • Lithium carbonate was used as a new solvent for stones in the bladder.
  • Lithium carbonate is used to treat mania the elevated phase of bipolar disorder.

Thursday, December 27, 2012

Coconut Oil-RBD Process


  • In order to refine coconut oil, RBD (Refined Bleached and Deodorized) Process renders a neutral flavor and smell due to a steam deodorization.
  • During the RBD process, heating is applied   especially during deodorization process, which is carried out at high temperature between 204 and 245C.
  • Product is bleached through addition of  activated charcoal and which is deodorized with steam and vacuum methods.
  • The technology for this type of  production of coconut oil through expellers is well developed and many medium scale industries in India produce oil by RBD method.

Wednesday, December 26, 2012


  • Phosphonates are also known as  phosphonic acids.
  • They are organic compounds containing like C-PO(OH)2 or C-PO(OR)2 groups  R denoted as alkyl, aryl.
  • Phosphonic acids are well known and  effective chelating agents.
  • Phosphonates are effective  water-soluble.
  • Phosphonates are also regularly used in reverse osmosis systems as anti-scalants.     

Monday, December 24, 2012

Metallic Stearates


  • Compounds of long-chain fatty acids with metals of different valencies some Stearates are not soluble in water.
  • Typical metallic Stearates are Calcium, Zinc, Magnesium and Aluminium.
  • Production process involves when stearic acid is heated to melt in excess water then saponified with strong alkali solution to give soluble soap and water. This mix is reacted with desired products metal salt solution to obtain desired Stearate and a water soluble salt.  For Example: [CH3(CH2)nCOOH] + NaOH = [CH3(CH2)nCOONa]+H2O.
  • Applications of Stearates are used as acid scavengers, lubricants and release agents by the plastics industry.

Saturday, December 22, 2012

Desulfurization of Petroleum Coke


  • Petroleum coke is a carbonaceous solid derived from oil refinery Coker units or other cracking processes
  • Petroleum coke has been burned at Kraft pulp mills to partially substitute for natural gas and fuel oil .
  • Desulfurization and devolatilization of petroleum coke by the use of short residence time hydrogenation technology. 
  • Desulfurization Process has been developed into a new sulphur-removal system it  saves money and reduces pollution.

Friday, December 21, 2012


  • Chlorophenols are organic chemicals in which one or more atoms of chlorine are replaced to one or more hydrogen atoms of phenol or 1- hydroxybenzene.
  • Raw materials of Chlorophenols is chlorine.
  • It melting points range is 33 to 191 degree Celsius and all the Chlorophenols are solids except 2-CP in melting point of 9 degree Celsius.
  • The range of practical quantization limits range from 0.002 to 0.008 micro gram/L and that concentrations of available data 2,4,6-TCP.
  • There are no data available to serves as a basis for establishing MAC for the other Chlorophenols. 

Chemical-Free Water Treatment System

  • Systems are evolved using combinations of electrical, magnetic and mechanical which means to replace water treatment chemicals.
  • Advanced technology provides a cost effective and resourceful method that cleans and purifies the water.
  • Pulse-Pure Water Treatment System is the best choice for non-chemical/chemical-free water treatment for cooling tower or evaporative cooler.
  • Reduction of chemical treatment of cooling tower water in the plant to reduce chemical emissions to the environment and also improves work safety.

Thursday, December 20, 2012


  • Calaverite Color is Brass-yellow to silver-white.
  • Calaverite mineral is a combination of tellurium and gold.
  • Calaverite other name gold telluride.
  • It is an uncommon telluride of gold a metallic mineral  with approximately 3% of the gold replaced by silver.
  • Calaverite has a specific gravity of 9.35 and a hardness of 2.5.

  • Hydroxyquinoline is an organic compound, it derivative of the hetrocycle quinoline and this  formula is C9H7NO.
  • Synonyms of Hydroxyquinolines are 8-oxybenzopyridine, hydroxybenzopyridine, phenopyridine, quinolinol, Oxine.
  • Hydroxyquinolines is one of the metal coordination complexes and it has good thermal stability, broad excited bands, and high fluorescence efficiency.
  • The raw materials of Hydroxyquinolines are 2-aminophenol and quinoline-8-sulfonic acid.

Lanolin Anhydrous


  • A water-free wool wax that contains less than 0.25 per cent by weight of water which is produced by refining and bleaching lanolin obtained in the wool-washing process.
  • Lanolin is a natural byproduct of processing animal wool, usually that of domestic sheep.
  • A valuable use for its lubricant properties and is frequently used to grease moving machinery parts to reduce friction and wear.
  • Major applications in ointments, balms and other topical formulas to treat chapped lips, minor wounds and abrasions, burns, diaper rash and other skin irritations.

Niger Seed

  • Niger seed which is known by its Botanical name Guizotia abyssinica and has yellow, daisy-like flowers, thistle has pink to purple ball-shaped flower heads that consist of many spine-tipped bracts. 
  • Properties includes which has tonic-releasing properties and is terrifically oil-rich.
  • Feeding Niger seed all-year-round is a proven way to help increase the numbers of goldfinches.
  • Niger (Nyjer) seed also known as Thistle seed.

Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Nitrogen from Organic wastes

  • Nitrogen is a common element in the universe presented at about seventh in total abundance in our galaxy and the Solar System.
  • Organic Wastes are also known as organic material and  natural organic matter.
  • It is composed of organic compounds that has come from living organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment.
  • The excrete organic materials such as faeces into soils, shed body parts such as leaves and roots and after the the organism dies, its body begins to decompose, broken down broken down by bacterial and fungal action.
  • Organic Wastes are  present throughout the ecosystem.

Monday, December 17, 2012

Tricresyl Phosphate

  • TCP stands for Tricresyl phosphate is an organophosphate component and non-flammable, viscous clear liquid, insoluble in water. It is used as a plasticizer and diverse.
  • Raw materials of Tricresyl phosphate are cresol, phosphorus oxychloride.
  • The physical state of tricresyl phosphate is clear to pale yellow oily liquid and this melting point is less than 40 C and the specification gravity 1.143.Its stability is stable under ordinary condition.
  • It appearance is clear to pale yellow oily liquid and the density range is maximum 1.185.

Friday, December 14, 2012

Benzyl Benzoate

  • The other names of benzyl Benzoate are benzoic acid phenylmethyl ester, benylate, ascabin, phenylmethyl benzoate, scabagen,vanzoate, benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol.
  • Benzyl benzoate chemical formula is C14H12O2 and the specification of melting point is 18-20 degree c and boiling point is 324 degree c.
  • It is the Colourless oily liquid or leaflets depend on temperature and Stable under ordinary conditions. it appearance is Colourless oily liquid and acid value is maximum 0.3 mg koh/g.
  • The raw material of benzyl benzoate are benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol.
  • It is used for the process of drugs and especially for antispasmodic drugs as a scabicides and to treat pediculosis.

Sodium Bifluoride

  • Sodium Bifluoride also Known as Sodium Hydrogen Fluoride.
  • Sodium bifluoride is a white crystal with its relative density of 2.08
  • Sodium bifluoride is soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol.
  • While heating sodium hydrogen fluoride it decomposes into sodium fluoride.
  • Sodium Bifluoride is used as aseptic, glass etchant and flux of metal

Thursday, December 13, 2012

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Miscanthus Giganteus Plant

  • Miscanthus Giganteous is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 0.8–2 m (rarely 4 m) tall, forming dense clumps from an under-ground rhizome.
  • Miscanthus Giganteus is a source for cellulosic ethanol production.
  • Miscanthus also used to convert solid fuel pellets and also Pots are manufactured from 70% Miscanthus blended with natural resins to produce a 100% biodegradable product.
  • One plant can be turned into hundreds of thousands of plants in a twelve month period.
  • Miscanthus has also having excellent fiber properties for papermaking.

Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate

  • A chemical compound with the formula Na4P2O7 which is a colorless transparent crystalline. It contains the pyrophosphate ion and sodium cation.
  • It Occurs in two forms: 1. Crystal form called decahydrate and 2. Anhydrous form.
  • Synonyms are TSPP, Sodium pyrophosphate, Sodium Diphosphate, Tetrasodium salt, Phosphotex, Anhydrous Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate.
  • Functional uses are buffering agent, emulsifying agent and as sequestrant.

Monday, December 10, 2012

Sodium Saccharin

Sodium Saccharin

  • Saccharin sodium is also called as sodium saccharin and it is an artificial sweetener found in a multitude of products.
  • The basic substance is benzoic sulfilimine and it has an effectively no food energy, it is more sweater than sucrose and it maybe 300-500 times sweeter than table sugar.
  • The characteristics specification of appearance is white crystals and the melting point range is 226-230degree Celsius and the content is 99.0% to 101.0% and it containing loss of drying has less than or equal to 15.
  • The chemical names of sodium saccharin are sodium salt dihydrate of 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3(2h)-one-1, 1-dioxide, 3-oxo-2, 3-dihydrobrnzoisothazole-1.

CetoStearyl Alcohol

  • Cetostearyl alcohol also known as Cetearyl alcohol or Cetyl stearyl alcohol 
  • It is a mixture of fatty alcohols  like Cetyl and stearyl alcohols
  • Cetyl alcohol also known as 1-hexadecanol and palmityl alcohol is a fatty alcohol with the formula CH315OH.
  • At room temperature Cetyl alcohol takes the form of a waxy white solid or flakes.
  • It is used as an emulsion stabilizer, opacifying agent, and foam boosting surfactant.

Friday, December 07, 2012

Ion-Exchange Resins

  • Ion exchange resins are polymers capable of exchanging particular ions within the polymer with ions in a solution that is passed through them.
  • Properties are highly ionic, covalently cross-linked, insoluble polyelectrolytes.
  • In both beads and powder form, resins are used extensively in all types of nuclear power plants in order to minimize corrosion.
  • Uses extends in pharmaceutical formulations as ranged from simple Excipients for tablet , capsules as disintegration to the rate controlling function in extended release formulations.

Tuesday, December 04, 2012

Hot-Melt Glue


  • Hot melt adhesive (HMA), also known as hot glue, a form of thermoplastic adhesive is commonly available in solid cylindrical sticks of various diameters, designed to be melted when heat is applied over it.
  • Some of the base materials for production of hot melt glue are polyamides, Ethylene vinyl acetate, polyurethane and polyolefin.
  • Mainly used in paper, package, hygienic printing and book-binding industries.
  • Hot melt glue has become popular for many crafts and household repairs.

Monday, December 03, 2012

Sodium Benzoate

Sodium Benzoate

  • Synonyms of sodium benzoate are Benzoic acid, sodium salt, Sobenate, Natrium benzoic, Antimol, Benzoate of soda and it has the chemical formula NaC6H5CO2.
  • Raw Materials of sodium benzoate are sodium hydroxide, benzoic acid, it is widely used food preservative and acidic foods.
  • The sodium benzoic can be produced by reacting the neutralization of benzoic acid, sodium hydroxide.
  • Sodium benzoate occurs naturally at levels of 10-1000 mg/kg in many foodstuffs in natural occurrences and it also occurs in many plants and in animals.
  • Sodium salt of benzoic acid is a sodium benzoate & one gram of the salt is soluble in 2 ml of water, in 75 ml of ethyl alcohol and in 50 ml of 90% ethyl alcohol.