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Thursday, January 31, 2013

Biomass to Chemicals

  • Biomass is a term related to any organic matter and the two most types of are wood and crops e.g. wheat, maize and rice. Another very important type of biomass is waste e.g. food waste, manure, etc.
  • Two classification for producing chemicals from biomass , they are fermentation and thermal chemical conversion.
  • Biomass-related chemical products typically fall into three general categories: biobased acids, biobased oils, and specialty chemicals.
  • The use of woody biomass to produce specific chemicals will become a more economically attractive solution.


  • Generally fender main objectives is to protect the ships hull from damage and it is used to absorb the kinetic energy of a boat or vessel berthing against a jetty, quay wall or other vessel.
  • It is the interface between a ship and the shore facilities.
  • Raw material of fender is rubber.
  • There are two types of fenders first one is ship to quay, and another one is ship-to-ship.
  • Properties of rubber fenders are energy absorption, hull pressure and reaction force and the elasticity of air to absorb energy.

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

Produktion Aluminiumpigmente | Aluminium pigment production © ECKART

Aluminium Pigments

Aluminium Pigments

  • Aluminum pigments are used in many types of polymers to impart both AESTHETIC and FUNCTIONAL value.
  • Raw materials of aluminium pigments is aluminium.
  • There are an amazing number of different aluminum pigment grades each offering a distinct visual appearance or functional attribute.
  • Commonly used in coatings to give a silvery and shiny luster to the substrate. Such paints and inks have traditionally been solvent borne, since Aluminium pigment particles react with water.

Rubber Wood

  • Rubber wood is the most ecologically friendly lumber used in today's furniture industry.
  • The stem wood has timber value of only 60%. Present total availability of rubber wood is estimated as 0.94 million m3/yr. and it is estimated to be 1.5 m3/yr times by the end of the decade.
  • Rubber Wood is cut down & used for making Rubber Wood Furniture and also used for making different types of Rubber Wood toys for children or all  ages.
  • Rubber wood is used only after it completes it's latex producing cycle and dies. 

Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Micronized Rubber Powder-MRP

  • A Fine, dry, powdered elastomeric compound contains a proportion of particles are < than 100 microns.
  • MRP is made typically from vulcanized elastomeric material, mostly from end-of-life tire material, but can also be produced from post-industrial Nitrile rubber, EPDM, butyl & natural rubber compounds.
  • Many industries incorporating MRP into various products include tire, automotive, construction, industrial components and also used as an additive in plastics, asphalt, coatings and as compound extender.
  • Production plant of MRP need to be equipped with 5 to 6 cryogenic turbo mills that produce rubber powders at rates exceeding 3000 pounds per hour which results in 140MM Ibs annual capacity per year.

Friday, January 25, 2013



  • PAN stands for Polyacrylonitrile is a synthetic, semi crystalline organic polymer resin, with the structure of linear formula is (C3H3N)n.
  • Synonyms of Polyacrylonitrile are 2-Propenenitrile, Homopolymer, Acrylonitrile polymer.
  • Raw material of Polyacrylonitrile are acrylonitrile and monomers. The production of PAN are based on free radical polymerization of Acrylonitrile.
  • It is usually used to make other polymers like, carbon fiber and the raw material of carbon fiber is PAN.

Aluminium Anode

  • Aluminium anodes are cast from special high grade 99.8% min. high purity aluminium alloys of zinc and indium and has been developed specifically for use in sea-water and sea-mud. 
  • They are characterized by their light weight, smooth corrosion pattern, high electrical capacity and stability.
  • Aluminum anodes are known for its high current capacity, desirable operating potential, and constant potential over time. 
  • Protection of storage tanks and are frequently installed on ship hulls and jetties to control corrosion in seawater environment.

Tuesday, January 22, 2013



  • Dendrimers are repetitively branched molecules and other names of dendrimers are arborols and cascade molecules.
  • Dendrimers unique structure provides special opportunities for host guest
  • It is constructed by the successive addition of layers to the branching groups.
  • Synthesis of trifunctional poly based dendrimers containing 16 protected acid groups and it may be formed by self-assembly and ways in which preformed dendrimers may interact with one another.

Anabolic Steroids


  • The term "anabolic steroids" will be used throughout this report because of its familiarity and although the proper term for these compounds is "anabolic-androgenic steroids it has come into public prominence.
  • It is derivatives of the naturally occurring male sex hormone and testosterone.
  • The testosterone is produced naturally in both men and women and it  particularly by the male testicles and other organs and tissues in females.
  • More than 850,000 high school students admit using or having used anabolic steroids.

Ultrasonic Brush

  • A brush which penetrates human body easily emits 1.6 million times per second  vibrations producing an ultra-critical "vacuum" effect of water which cleans the teeth.
  • Ultrasonic toothbrushes use high-frequency vibrations to clean teeth.
  • Brush provide efficient transmission of ultrasonic frequency vibrations from the device via brush head to the teeth and gums of the user to remove soft plaque.
  • Features includes are easy to use, run on rechargeable batteries that last for two weeks, automatic shutoff timers, and waterproof. 

Friday, January 18, 2013

Rubber Blowing Agent 

  • A chemical added to rubbers that generates inert gases on heating, causing the resin to assume a cellular structure. 
  • A kind of light yellow powder with no odor, but some formaldehyde flavor when it is moist in nature and is also known as foaming agent.
  • Though in year 2015, worldwide demand for rubber processing chemicals is projected to rise 4.7 percent per year.



  • Available of glycerophosphate are sodium glycerophosphate, calcium glycerophosphate, manganese glycerophosphate, potassium glycerophosphate, ferric glycerophosphate, and magnesium glycerophosphate.
  • Phosphate is the raw material of glycerophosphate.
  • Enhanced Bioavailability, pharmaceutical grade, 100% water soluble, vegetarian & non-GMO these are the glycerophosphate Key Benefits to Customers.
  • It used for mouthwash & toothpaste infant formula & cereal, juice, sports drinks, health tonics.

Thursday, January 17, 2013

Biodegradable Plastic Fibre

  • Objective of developing biodegradable plastic fibre for two applications which are twines and nets for packaging products.
  • Uses of twines are staking and propping of crops in greenhouses and nets for packaging low-weight and non food products.
  • The biodegradable staking twines and nets are produced by Extrusion Stretch Fibrillation Twist Winder Process with conventional equipment.
  • Added advantage is recycling has been done with both these biodegradable products.

Thursday, January 10, 2013


  • N-Pentane also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3.
  • Pentane is a colorless, volatile and flammable liquid with a sweet or gasoline-like odor.
  • There are Three isomers exist for pentane: n-pentane,  Isopentane and neopentane.
  • Isopentane also called methylbutane or 2-methylbutane, is an organic chemical compound which is one of the three pentane isomers.

Lightly Calcined Magnesite 

  • A Chemically reactive material which is produced by sintering (heating of ore at high temperature) raw Magnesite Shaft Kiln or rotary kiln at a controlled temperature 1100 degree centigrade by using furnace oil. 
  • Synonyms are Calcined Magnesite, Caustic Calcined Magnesia. 
  • Reaction involves under calcination is MgCO3 = MgO + CO2 which expels out the carbon dioxide.
  • Applications in the fields of Abrasive for Grinding Wheels, Construction, Fertilizers (Plant Nutrient), Stock Feed / Cattle Feed, Fuel Additive, Leather Tanning, Refractory (Ceramics/Steel industry).

Concrete Plasticizer 

  • An admixture for Concrete that allows the water content of a concrete mixture to be reduced without impairing its consistency or to increase its slump without changing the water content or to achieve both effects at the same time.
  • Plasticizers, also known as Super Plasticizers or high-range water reducers which reduce water content by 12 to 30 percent and can be added to concrete to make high-slump flowing concrete. 
  • Properties includes increases durability& impermeability, lower pumping pressure, reduction in shrinkage, increased cement efficiency as compared to conventional concrete used in the construction.

Wednesday, January 09, 2013

Silicon for Solar Cells


  • Solar cell is  an electrical device and it converts energy of light directly into electricity.
  • Atom of silicon has 14 electrons and it arranged in three different shells and it has some special chemical properties and especially in its crystalline form.
  • Raw material of silicon for solar cell is silicon.
  • Multi-crystalline Silicon cells size is 125mm X 125mm and the mono-crystalline Silicon cells size is 156mm X 156mm.
  • Two kinds of category have silicon solar cells they are electrical parameter & recombination parameters.



  • n-Butylamine other names are 1-Aminobutane,1-Butanamine, Monobutylamime.
  • n-Butylamine molecular formula is  C4H11N.
  • n-Butylamine is a colourless liquid is one of the four isomeric amines of butane.
  • n-butylamine is a liquid having the fishy and ammonia-like odor common to amines.
  • n-Butylamine is soluble in all organic solvents.

Monday, January 07, 2013

Turbot Farming

  • Turbot farming was first started in the UK in 1970s and was then further developed in France and Spain.
  • In fisheries industry, Land-based aquaculture is an increasing sector and turbot  (a large marine flatfish ) farming that has great potential under land based aquaculture.
  • Production of turbot in Iceland has been growing and it is therefore important to develop technology to lower the production costs.
  • Turbot tends to feed and grow well at temperatures ranging from 12 to 18C and can reach a market size of 2kg in 24 months at sea.
  • The market opportunities shows that the wild turbot appeared to be less firm but also less sticky when compared to farmed turbot.

Hyperintensive Fish Farming

  • Fish farming is the principal form of aquaculture and the  other methods comes under mariculture.
  • The success of hyperintensive systems, SRS especially when water is recycled is strongly dependent on water monitoring and control ability.
  • The most important fish species used in fish farming are carp, salmon, tilapia and catfish.
  • Farming carnivorous fish, such as salmon, does not always reduce pressure on wild fisheries.
  • Extensive aquaculture based on local photosynthetical production and intensive aquaculture, in which the fish are fed with external food supply.

Saturday, January 05, 2013

Activated Carbon from Coconut Shell

India Exported 38500 tonnes of Activated Carbon produced from Coconut Shells during
the year 2012-2013 valued at 347.60 Crores
To motivate to improve the Industry initiative, Government of India have indroduced
incentive of 2 % from January 1, 2013
Know more about the Industry

Cellulose Ether


  • Cellulose ether are impregnated into seven inorganic additives they are zinc(II) chloride, cadmium(II) bromide, diammonium hydrogenphosphate, boric acid, borax, sodium dihydrogenphosphate and ammonium nickel(II) sulphate.
  • Raw material of cellulose ether are cellulose and ether.
  • Cellulose is an organic compound and its structure of formula is (C6H10O5)n.
  • It using a colorimetric method and it consists of adding 0.25 ml of 85% phenol solution and 1.3 ml of sulfuric acid 0.5 ml of supernatant in tubes, which were then closed and vortex stirred.

Soap Noodles 

  • Soap noodles are the sodium salt of fatty acids from oils or fats of both animal and vegetable origin and which is the basic raw material for  production of soap.
  • By the reaction of refined high quality cattle fat and herbal contents like coconut oil or palm oil with Sodium Hydroxide, Soap Noodles are obtained.
  • Manufacturers uses basic soap noodles, then add pigments, fragrances and other components to create their own brand of soap.
  • The Plant Capacity of soap noodles per annum 3600MT produced from machinery which cost around 156lakhs and the total capital investment for this plant costs upto 665lakhs.

Friday, January 04, 2013

Alpha Olefin Sulfonate 

  • One of the active ingredient used in detergents which is produced from Sulphonation of alpha olefin.
  • AOS is an effective emulsifier and has excellent foaming and detergency characteristics.
  • A multi step process involves in commercial Production of alpha olefin sulfonates from alpha olefins by reacting the olefin with dilute SO3 digesting the crude sulfonic acid mixture, neutralizing with NaOH and hydrolyzing the remaining sultones to product.
  • AOS can be used directly as a cleaner lubricant or as an enhancement for other lubricants.

Sugar Globules


  • Sugar globules are manufactured from Sugar.
  • Sugar Globules are mainly used by homoeopathic doctors.
  • The raw material sugar is easily available in each and every part of the country.
  • This Sugar globules have good absorption power than other globules and It easily absorbs the homoeopathic drug without any change in composition and property.

Sodium Lauryl Sulphate


  • Sodium lauryl sulphate have many other names they are dodecyl sodium sulfate, SLS, sulfuric acid monododecyl ester sodium salt, sodium dodecanesulfate, dodecyl alcohol, hydrogen sulfate, sodium salt, akyposal SDS.
  • Chemical formula of sodium lauryl sulphate is  C12H25NaO4S or CH3-(CH2)11-O-SO3-Na+.
  • Sodium lauryl sulphate characteristics is white or pale yellow, powder or crystals.
  • Sodium lauryl sulphate  raw material are coconut, palm oil.

Thursday, January 03, 2013

Calcium Formate

  • Other names of calcium formate are formic acid calcium salt, calcium diformate, calcoform.
  • Calcium formate molecular formula is (HCOO)2CA.
  • It is in the form of white solid and it is soluble in water.
  • Raw material of calcium formate are calcium hydroxide, calcium oxide, formic acid.
  • The formic acid is also called methanoic acid.
  • It appearance is white or light yellow free flowing powder and the molecular weight is 130.12 and PH value of 10 solutions 6.0-8.0.
  • It contains at least 98% of assay and it also formed in the production of pentaerythritol.

Mineral Plaster 

  • A decorative acrylic copolymer and granite-marble based coating material for exterior and interior walls.
  • Raw Materials required for mineral plasters are mineral binders, such as lime and cement, fillers, pigments, and additives such as cellulose ether and starch ether, as well as organic polymeric binders.
  • Synonyms of Mineral Plasters are Mineral Stone Plaster, Natural Stone Plaster, Stone Plaster.
  • Properties having ultraviolet rays resistance so it wouldn’t crack and also a good adhesion with the foundation so that it could be easily maintained and cleaned.