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Friday, September 30, 2011


A dietary supplement is a product taken by mouth that contains a "dietary ingredient" intended to supplement the diet.

There are many different types of dietary supplements, including herbs and botanicals, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, among others.

Japan’s nutritional supplements sector is a major market for U.S. firms and one that appears likely to continue to exhibit steady growth for the foreseeable future. Japan’s 8th largest seller among supplement products.

The Dietary Supplement Industry Contributes Nearly $61 Billion to the Economy Through Direct and Ripple Effects.

70% of the sales of nutrient-type supplements come from vitamin C, protein, calcium and vitamin E products. They are easily understood
and accepted by consumers.

Thursday, September 29, 2011


ε-Caprolactone or simply caprolactone is a cyclic ester, a member of the lactone family, with a seven-membered ring with the formula (CH₂)₅CO₂. This colorless liquid is miscible with most organic solvents. It is produced on a very large scale as a precursor to caprolactam.

The great majority of caprolactone is consumed, often in situ, as a precursor to caprolactam. It is also a monomer used in the manufacture of highly specialised polymers.

Caprolactones, are integral in applications such as the production of support material for top-quality shoes, waterborne PUDs and modern orthopedic brace supports.The market for caprolactone - based technology is continuing to grow rapidly.

Wednesday, September 28, 2011


  • A stent is an artificial 'tube' inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract, a disease-induced, localized flow constriction.
  • The term may also refer to a tube used to temporarily hold such a natural conduit open to allow access for surgery.
  • The most widely known stent use is in the coronary arteries with a bare-metal stent, a drug-eluting stent or occasionally a covered stent.
  • Coronary stents are placed during a percutaneous coronary intervention procedure, also known as an angioplasty.

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Aristolochic Acid

Aristolochic acids are a family of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic compounds commonly found in the Aristolochiaceae family of plants, including Aristolochia and Asarum, which are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine.

Plants containing aristolochic acids are often used as herbal medicines or in other botanical products in the United States and abroad.

Aristolochic acid (AA), a mixture of aristolochic acid I (AAI) and aristolochic acid II (AAII), is present in Aristolochiaceae plants, many of which are used as herbal folk remedies.

Boron Trifluoride

Boron trifluoride is the chemical compound with the formula BF3. This pungent colourless toxic gas forms white fumes in moist air. It is a useful Lewis acid and a versatile building block for other boron compounds.

BF3 is manufactured by the reaction of boron oxides with hydrogen fluoride.

Boron trifluoride used in sensitive neutron detectors in ionization chambers and devices to monitor radiation levels in the Earth's atmosphere.

Boron Trifluoride is a non-flammable compressed gas, packaged and shipped in cylinders under high pressure. It is often advantageous to use BF3 in a complexed form so that BF3 can be released under preferred conditions.BF3 complexes are typically liquids or solids and therefore may be more easily managed than the high pressure gas.

Monday, September 26, 2011


  • Ciprofloxacin (INN) is a synthetic chemotherapeutic antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone drug class.
  • It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial.
  • It kills bacteria by interfering with the enzymes that cause DNA to rewind after being copied, which stops synthesis of DNA and of protein.
  • Ciprofloxacin is marketed worldwide with over three hundred different brand names.
  • In the United States, Canada, and the UK, it is marketed as Baycip, Ciloxan, Ciflox, Cipro, Cipro XR, Cipro XL, Ciproxin, Prociflor, and most recently, Proquin.

Friday, September 23, 2011


Etoposide is a chemotherapy drug that is usually given to treat lung, ovarian and testicular cancer.

Etoposide is a colourless fluid. It is also available as 50mg and 100mg pale pink capsules.

Etoposide can cause a rash, which may be itchy.

Etoposide is one of the most widely used antineoplastics.

Etoposide is often incorrectly referred to as a topoisomerase inhibitor in order to avoid using the term "poison" in a clinical setting.


High alumina cement is obtained by fusing or sintering a mixture, in suitable proportions, of alumina and calcareous materials and grinding the resultant product to a fine powder.

The raw materials used for the manufacture of high alumina cement are limestone and bauxite.

High alumina cement, sometimes called calcium aluminate cement or aluminous cement, is very different in its composition and in some properties from portland cement, but concreting techniques are similar.

The converted form of HAC may show a reduction in strength and become more susceptible to certain forms of chemical attack.

It is known that the initial product of hydration of high-alumina cement at low temperatures, often labeled “CAH10,” contains both crystalline and amorphous portions.


The crocus is a small, low-growing flower with iridescent colors ranging from gray to reddish purple. The crocus has grass-like leaves and it blooms in early spring and in autumn.

The two main types of crocus are the Crocus vernus and Crocus sativus.

Crocus is a burlap-like fabric once used to ship saffron.

The crocus plant is short in stature but come in many colours such as white, yellow, lilac, blue and purple. Some varieties have two colours and others are have striped petals.

The name Crocus is derived from the Latin adjective crocatus, meaning saffron yellow. The Greek word for "saffron" is krokos, while the Arabic word saffron or zafaran, means yellow.


Diethyl sulfate is a highly toxic and likely carcinogenic chemical compound with formula (C2H5)2SO4.

Diethyl sulfate occurs as a colorless liquid with a peppermint odor.

Diethyl sulfate (DES) is an important chemical intermediate to make products for coatings, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, detergents and textiles.

Diethyl sulfate decomposes into ethyl hydrogen sulfate and alcohol upon heating or in hot water.

Diethyl sulfate has been produced commercially in the United States.


Iodophor a complex of iodine and a surface-active agent that releases iodine gradually and serves as a disinfectant.

Diluted iodophor is often used by brewers and winemakers to sanitize equipment and bottles.

Iodophor is a federally approved contact sanitizer that is used widely by resturant, food production, and dairy industry.

Iodine solutions and iodophors have been used primarily as antiseptics for many years.

Aqueous iodine solutions can be easily made up, and they as well as iodophors are readily available in most countries.

Povidone-iodine is the most common iodophor and is available globally.

Wednesday, September 21, 2011


  • Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Salbutamol is typically used to treat bronchospasm (due to either asthma or exercise) as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • It was first sold by Allen & Hanburys under the brand name Ventolin.
  • The drug was an instant success, and has been used for the treatment of asthma ever since.


Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as ETA or MEA), is an organic chemical compound that is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group).

Ethanolamine is widely applied to surfactant, emulsifier, and plasticizer, accelerant, curing ingredient and vesicant, and it could remove H2S and CO2 from refinery and natural gas streams. It is also important in the manufacture of herbicides, detergents, cosmetics, metal cleaners, and textiles.

Ethanolamine is also important in the manufacture of herbicides, detergents, cosmetics, metal cleaners, and textiles.


Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as ETA or MEA), is an organic chemical compound that is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group).

Ethanolamine is widely applied to surfactant, emulsifier, and plasticizer, accelerant, curing ingredient and vesicant, and it could remove H2S and CO2 from refinery and natural gas streams. It is also important in the manufacture of herbicides, detergents, cosmetics, metal cleaners, and textiles.

Ethanolamine is also important in the manufacture of herbicides, detergents, cosmetics, metal cleaners, and textiles.

Scrap dumping duty on tyres from China, Thailand, say tyre dealers

why should the dealers sympathetic to chinese/thai tyres? and against Indian Tyre companies??

The Empowered Group of Ministers (EGoM) revoked the ban on onion exports on Tuesday. However, it retained the minimum export price (MEP) of $475 a tonne that was fixed on September 4, three days before the ban was imposed

Farmers against export ban of are the traders profiting ..
But the Government is scared of consumer rath

Monday, September 19, 2011

Titanium Nitride

Titanium nitride (TiN) (sometimes known as “Tinite” or “TiNite” or “TiN”) is an extremely hard ceramic material, often used as a coating on titanium alloys, steel, carbide, and aluminium components to improve the substrate's surface properties. Titanium nitride is a chemical compound of the two elements titanium and nitrogen. TiN - so its formula - is a metallic hard material of typically gold-yellow color.

Titanium nitride (TIN) has been used in the coating of tool steels since the mid-sixties. The reasons to coat cutting tools in a production situation are to increase tool life, to improve thesurface quality of the product, and to increase the production rate.

Titanium Nitride (TiN) is the most common PVD hard coating in use today. TiN has an excellent combination of performance properties, attractive appearance, and safety.


  • Imidacloprid is a relatively new insecticide, first registered for use as a pesticide in the U.S. in 1994, and was the first insecticide in its chemical class to be developed for commercial use.
  • Like nicotine, it acts on the nervous system. Worldwide, it is considered to be one of the insecticides used in the largest volume.
  • The most widely used applications for imidacloprid in California are pest control in structures, turf pest control, grape growing, and head and leaf lettuce growing.

Saturday, September 17, 2011


Trimethylgallium, Ga(CH3)3, often abbreviated to TMG or TMGa, is the preferred metalorganic source of gallium for metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of gallium-containing compound semiconductors, such as GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb, InGaAs, InGaN, AlGaInP, InGaP and AlInGaNP.

Trimethyl-gallium has approximately the consistency of water and is a colourless fluid, which has a boiling point of 60 degree C, has an explosion-like reaction with water, and flames up on its own when reacting with air.

Trimethylgallium may be prepared by the reaction of dimethylzinc with gallium trichloride.

The material is used in the production of LED lighting and semiconductors as a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition precursor.

Friday, September 16, 2011

PC Water Bottle

Polycarbonate PC plastic is formed by a condensation polymerization resulting in a carbon that is bonded to three oxygens.Polycarbonate has high light-transmittance (88-91% as compared to 92% for clear plate glass) and high resistance to stains by tea, coffee, lipstick, inks, soap, detergent, and many other household materials.
Polycarbonate remains one of the fastest growing engineering plastics as new applications are defined; global demand for PC exceeds 1.5 million tons.

Titanium Tetrachloride

Titanium tetrachloride is a colorless to pale yellow liquid that has fumes with a strong odor. Titanium tetrachloride is a colourless liquid with a penetrating odour. Titanium tetrachloride does not exist naturally in the environment but is man-made using minerals that contain high levels of titanium.
It is used to make titanium metal and other titanium-containing compounds, such as titanium dioxide, which is used as a white pigment in paints and other products and to produce other chemicals.
Titanium tetrachloride is used in the manufacturing of titanium dioxide pigments, titanium metal, artificial pearls, and iridescent glass; in the production of Ziegler-Natto catalysts; and as a military smoke screen.


Tafia is a kind of cheap rum made from sugarcane juice. It is typically unaged whereas rum is typically aged in wooden barrels to reduce the level of fusel.
Tafia is an unaged, Caribbean or South American alcoholic beverage produced by batch distillation of beers obtained by the fermentation of  sugar-cane juice or molasses. It is similar to aguardiente and rum.


Tequila  is a spirit made from the blue agave plant, primarily in the area surrounding the city of Tequila, 65 kilometres (40 mi) northwest of Guadalajara, and in the highlands (Los Altos) of the western Mexican state of Jalisco.Tequila is a clear white liquor distilled from the juice of the blue agave plants grown in Mexico. The juices are extracted from the heart of the plant (agave azu tequilana weber) and are distilled twice.

Different kinds of tequila are produced in 50 registered companies in Jalisco.
The tequila products made by these companies differ mainly in proportions of agave used,  production processes , microorganisms used in the fermentation, distillation equipment used and the maturation and aging times.


  • Chloroform is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
  • It is one of the four chloromethanes.
  • The colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid is a trihalomethane, and is considered somewhat hazardous.
  • Chloroform is a clear liquid with an ether-like odor and a slightly sweet taste.
  • It is a naturally-occurring chemical, but most of the chloroform in the environment is man-made.

Thursday, September 15, 2011

Synthetic Rutile

Synthetic rutile (TiO2) is manufactured through the upgrading of ilmenite ore to remove impurities (mostly iron) and yield a feedstock for production of titanium tetrachloride through the chloride process.

The CMRL, which began production at its 10,000 tpy synthetic rutile plant in Kerala in 1990, has gradually raised the production capacity to around 36,000 tpy in 2005-06 for exports.

Synthetic rutile is used for coating welding electrodes and for manufacture of titanium tetrachloride which in turn is used in making titanium sponge.

Synthetic rutile made from ilmenite can be substituted for natural rutile.

Iluka is the world’s largest producer of synthetic rutile, accounting for approximately 66% of global production in past years.


Lemonade is a lemon-flavored drink, typically made from lemons, water and sugar.

Regular consumption and habit of lemonade will help to prevent any imbalance of electrolytes needed to keep hydrated constantly and is also perfect to keep the skin to age.

Lemonade moisturizing effects are first class, as well as its ability to neutralize the acid pH in excess of the items we throw the body in digestion.

Monday, September 12, 2011

Baby Cereal Food

  • According to the baby food stage 1, cereals are typically the first complementary food introduced to infants.
  • It is made up of gently ingredients and has a smooth, fine texture that is appropriate for your baby.
  • The best first baby food to introduce to your child is usually an iron-fortified single grained cereal. This will provide the necessary iron that your baby needs in his diet.
  • Rice, oatmeal and barley cereal are grains that are least likely to create an allergic reaction.

Diethyl Phthalate

Diethyl phthalate (DEP) is a phthalate ester, namely the diethyl ester of phthalic acid. It is a clear substance that is liquid at room temperature and which does not occur in nature.

Diethyl phthalate is produced by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with ethanol in the presence of a catalytic amount of concentrated sulfuric acid.

Diethyl phthalate was reported as an ingredient in 67 cosmetic formulations at concentrations ranging from ≤0.1 % to 25-50%. These cosmetics included bath preparations (oils, tablets, and salts), eye shadows, toilet waters, perfumes and other fragrance preparations, hair sprays, wave sets, nail polish and enamel removers, nail extenders, nail polish, bath soaps, detergents, aftershave lotions, and skin care preparations

Ethyl Cellulose

Ethylcellulose (EC) is a hydrophobic ethyl ether of cellulose.

Ethyl cellulose (EC) is a non-toxic, stable, compressible, inert, hydrophobic polymer that has been widely used to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Ethylcellulose is one of the most widely used water-insoluble polymer in film-coating to achieve extended drug release.

EC is currently used in pharmaceutical applications for microencapsulation of actives, controlled-release matrix systems, taste masking, solvent and extrusion granulation, tablet binding, and as a controlled-release coating for tablets and beads.

Saturday, September 10, 2011


WEEDS are the plants, which grow where they are not wanted. They grow in thefields where they compete with crops for water, soil nutrients, light and space and thus reduce crop yields.

The controlling of weeds in the growing crops with weedicides increases their yields and ensures the efficient use of irrigation,fertilizers and plant-protection measures, such as the spraying of insecticides and fungicides.

Both the nature of the weeds and that of the crops which they infest, influence the action of the weedicides. For example, the same types of weeds occur in maize and cotton which are kharif crops. 2,4-D can be used for killing the weeds in maize, but this weedicide should never be used on cotton which is highly sensitive to it.

A series of field trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of newly introduced weedicide against broad leaved weeds of wheat crop at Adaptive Research Farm.


With increasing ginger production in Hawaii, canned ginger paste was made experimentally as a value-added product.

In India, a ginger paste is traditionally made with 50% sliced and macerated ginger, 35% garlic, and 15% salt.

The ginger is washed with chlorinated water and ordinary water and made into paste in pulveriser.

The Influence of temperature on the rheological characteristics of ginger paste were studied using a rheometer

Ginger and Garlic Paste is mainly used as a condiment in various food preparation
and also serves as a carminative and gastric stimulant in many medicine


An oil compound used with sand to make foundry core.

Core oil is a substance for binding core sand together.

Core-binding properties of beniseed and melon oils are hereby characterised with a view to finding
alternatives to the imported foundry core oils that deplete Nigeria’s foreign exchange.

A report is prepared which contains the results of testing to measure the core making/baking and pouring/ cooling/shakeout emissions from core oil cores.

The residual oil saturation (Sor) of a North Sea sandstone reservoir has been measured by two different techniques.

Core binders are either organic, such as core oil, which are destroyed under heat, or inorganic, which are not destroyed.


Menthol crystals are produced through mint essential oil (mentha arvensis) extraction, the oil is quick frozen and the menthol crystallizes out.

The crystals are crystalline in form, more oblong, similar to rock crystals. They are clear to white with a cool minty fresh odor. Soluble in alcohol and oils.

The menthol crystallization process using menthe oil is rather simple, and consists of a cascade crystallization

The world's current demand for menthol is about 12,000 metric tons, with India accounting for around 7,000 metric tons.

China produced 3,500 metric tons of menthol, but that country has been reducing its domestic production, and the broker projects a further reduction of about 20 percent.


A lemon drop is a sugary, lemon-flavored candy that is typically colored yellow and often shaped like a miniature lemon.

The term "lemon drop" is also occasionally applied to lemon-flavored throat lozenges, as well as an alcoholic drink consisting of lemon juice, vodka and sugar.

Lemon-Drop Cocktail was first created in San Fransisco, the lemon-drop cocktail uses vodka, lemon juice and sugar. It is sometimes called a lemon martini.


Magnesium sulphate fertilizer is a kind of small white crystal.

Magnesium sulphate fertilizer has been widely applied in many countries and regions, especially in rubber tree, oil palm, tobacco plant ,orange and tangerine plant and grassland with tangible result.

The magnesium sulphate fertilizer is widely used in the fields of agriculture , livestock breeding, forestry and soilless culture.

Epsom salts are incredibly wealthy sources of magnesium sulfate, which is lacking in most soil varieties.

Epsom salts are one of the most effective means of making magnesium (a pure mineral compound) your body needs.

Dry Ice (Compressed Carbon Dioxide)

Dry Ice," the trademark name for solid carbon dioxide, reaches its solid state when cooled liquid carbon dioxide is put under pressure.
Dry ice is solidified carbon dioxide (CO2). Distinct from regular ice, which exists at temperatures of 32°F (0°C) and below, dry ice is extremely cold, -109°F (-79°C).
Dry ice advantages include lower temperature than that of water ice and not leaving any residue (other than incidental frost from moisture in the atmosphere). It is useful for preserving frozen foods, ice cream, etc.,
One of the largest mechanical uses of dry ice is blast cleaning. Dry ice pellets are shot out of a nozzle with compressed air. This can remove residues from industrial equipment.

Friday, September 09, 2011

Tobacco Based Tooth Powder

Tobacco tooth powder has the appearance of a fine dry powder and is typically applied to the teeth and gums.

Mishri is roasted tobacco powder that is applied as a tooth powder.

Red tooth powder is a commercially available dentifrice that contains a significant proportion of tobacco.

Tooth cleaning powders are originating from Southeast Asia and comprising abrasive powdered tobacco with aromatic ingredients added to make the breath sweet.

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Potato Starch

Potato starch is starch extracted from potatoes. The cells of the root tubers of the potato plant contain starch grains (leucoplasts). To extract the starch, the potatoes are crushed; the starch grains are released from the destroyed cells. The starch is then washed out and dried to powder.

Potato starch and potato starch derivatives are used in many recipes, for example in noodles, wine gums, cocktail nuts, potato chips, hot dog sausages, bakery cream and instant soups and sauces, in gluten-free recipes.

Potato starch is also used in technical applications as wallpaper adhesive, for textile finishing and textile sizing, in paper coating and sizing and as an adhesive in paper sacks and gummed tape.

The present demand for the proposed product is estimated at 23.3 tones per annum. The demand is expected to reach at 64.29 tones by the year 2022.

Fish Meal

  • Fishmeal is a nutrient-rich and high protein supplement feed ingredient used primarily in diets for domestic animals and sometimes used as a high-quality organic fertilizer.
  • Fish meal, or fishmeal, is a commercial product made from both whole fish and the bones and offal from processed fish.
  • It is a brown powder or cake obtained by rendering pressing the cooked whole fish or fish trimmings to remove most of the fish oil and water, and then ground. What remains is the "fishmeal".
  • Feeding of fish meal was found to increase protein utilization in lactating dairy cattle .

Mango Pulp

Mango pulp finds vast application in the food industry and also at homes.

It is used in the bakery products in fruit breads, donuts, pie filling, icing, cakes and is also used in muffins and tarts.

Mango pulp is also used for making beverages such as fruit drinks, milkshakes and a variety of refreshing jams and jellies.

India is the largest grower of the most widely recognized variety of mango used in pulp manufacture.

The country also dominates the world market for mango pulp with over 113,000 MT of production and a 67% share of world exports.

Wednesday, September 07, 2011


Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical technique used in procedures such as tubal ligation, gallbladder removal or hiatal hernia repair. Laparoscopy is usually performed under general anesthesia; however it can be performed with other types of anesthesia that permit the patient to remain awake.
There are two types of laparoscope: (1) a telescopic rod lens system, that is usually connected to a video camera (single chip or three chip), or (2) a digital laparoscope where the charge-coupled device is placed at the end of the laparoscope, eliminating the rod lens system.
The potential benefits of laparoscopic surgery include the reduction of postoperative morbidity and pain, less compromise of gastrointestinal function and earlier return to a normal socio-professional activity.

Banana and its product

Banana, the fruit of a plant of the genus Musa (family Musaceae) is basically cultivated for food, and secondary for the production of fibers, and also for producing tissue-thin tea bags.
The demand of handmade paper is increasing day by day in domestic as well as in international market. Several varieties of Banana are cultivated in the country. The plants are cut down as soon as fruits are harvested for extraction of fibre. Banana fibre has great potentialities for paper making because of its high alpha-cellulose and low lignin content

Tuesday, September 06, 2011

Tomato Processing & Products

Tomato paste is a thick paste that is made by cooking tomatoes for several hours to reduce moisture, straining them to remove the seeds and skin, and cooking them again to reduce them to a thick, rich concentrate.

Tomato purée is a processed food product, usually consisting of only tomatoes, but can also be found in pre-seasoned form. It differs from tomato sauce or tomato paste in consistency and content.

A tomato sauce is any of a very large number of sauces made primarily from tomatoes, usually to be served as part of a dish (rather than as a condiment).

Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates are both in the top ten import countries of tomato paste from China with respectively 28,800 and 35,100MT, in the year 2008.

Tomato paste is a commodity in a competitive global market. Worldwide, there are three major players in tomato paste production: the United States, Europe (mainly Italy and Spain) and China.

Monday, September 05, 2011

Garlic Powder

Garlic powder is dried garlic that has been finely diced to create a powdered form.

Garlic Powder, which is used mainly as a condiment in food preparations, also serves as carminative and gastric stimulant in many medical preparations.

Garlic powder is a very popular ingredient with cooks throughout the world, but is especially popular in Chinese and Mediterranean cooking.

Manufacture of garlic powder from raw bulb is a well established activity in Europe and U.S and is now taking roots in India.

Saturday, September 03, 2011

Broiler Chicken

A broiler is a type of chicken raised specifically for meat production.
Modern commercial broilers, typically known as Cornish crosses or Cornish-Rocks are specially bred for large scale, efficient meat production and grow much faster than egg or traditional dual purpose breeds.
They have white feathers and yellowish skin. This cross is also favorable for meat production because it lacks the typical "hair" which many breeds have that necessitates singeing after plucking.