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Tuesday, July 31, 2012

UV curing technology

  • UV Curing Technology is a technology of instant curing or drying in seconds in which ultraviolet is applied to resins such as coatings, adhesives, marking ink and photo-resists, etc., to cause photopolymerization.
  • With olymerization reaction methods by heat-drying or mixing two liquids, it usually takes between a few seconds to several hours to dry a resin.
  • Recently, the performance of UV curable resin has improved significantly. Moreover, various types of UV curable resins are now available and their use as well as market is growing rapidly, since it is advantageous in terms of saving energy/space, reducing waste, and achieves high productivity and low-temperature treatment.
Benzyl chloride

  • Benzyl chloride is a colorless to slightly yellow liquid with a pungent, aromatic odor it is soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform, and is insoluble in water. .
  • Benzyl chloride was first prepared from treatment of benzyl alcohol with hydrochloric acid
  • It is very refractive
  • Benzyl chloride is combustible and is corrosive to metal reacts with steam and oxidizing agents and is slowly hydrolyzed by water (HSDB, 

Monday, July 30, 2012

Salt Lamps

  • A salt lamp is simply a chunk of mined salt that has been hollowed out to allow room for a light bulb or tiny candle.
  • The light glows through the medium of the salt crystal, which can range in color from a dark salmon pink to a pale orange.
  • Salt lamps provide a simple, natural way to increase the negative ions in your home.


  • Spinosad is an insecticide where the active ingredient is derived from a naturally occurring soil dwelling bacterium called  Saccharopolyspora spinosa. The bacteria produce compounds (metabolites) while in a fermentation broth which can be formulated into an insecticide that combines the efficacy of a synthetic insecticide with the benefits of a biological pest control organism.
  • Spinosad DT is a mixture of spinosyn A and spinosyn D. It is used for mosquito control in potable water in containers. 
  • Spinosad DT 7.48% is specified for use as a vector control agent in drinking-water sources.
  • Spinetoram, a green chemical synthesis which retains the favorable environmental benefits of spinosad, provides an effective broad spectrum alternative to organophosphate pesticides for fruits and vegetables.
  • Cannabis is a drug produced from the Cannabis sativa (commonly known as hemp) or Cannabis indica plant, which is related to nettles and hops. It's believed to have originated in the mountainous regions of India, and grows wild in many parts of the world.
  • Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica  the main active chemical in cannabis is THC (delta-9 tetra hydro cannabinol).
  • Cannabis is a depressant drug.
  • Cannabis has been used for medical purposes for many centuries.
  •  It has been reported that cannabis may be useful to help conditions such as:nausea and vomiting, particularly when associated with chemotherapy wasting and severe weight loss, in people with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or anorexia nervosa, as it may be used as an appetite stimulant

Saturday, July 28, 2012

zinc cyanide

  • Zinc cyanide is the inorganic chemical compound with the formulaZn(CN)2. It adopts a polymeric structure consisting of tetrahedral zinc centers linked by bridging cyanide ligands.It is a white solid that is used mainly for electroplating zinc but also has more specialized applications for thesynthesis of organic compounds.
  • Zn(CN)2 is employed as a catalyst for the cyanosilylation of aldehydes and ketones.
  • It is also used to introduce the formyl group in organic synthesis. 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde has been prepared from 2-naphthol, zinc cyanide, and anhydrous hydrogen chloride.

Friday, July 27, 2012

Dry Distempers

  • Distemper is an early form of white wash which is used as medium for aesthetic works    of art on surfaces it’s also called as soft size paint and is usually made from powdered chalk, or lime. 
  • It uses hide glue as its medium to attain a soft finish like velvet it has many similarities with lime and gives warm and charming results
  • Applications of the dry distemper with decoration of houses.offices,factory sheds.hospitals.public building.
  • Aqualin premium dry distemper is ideal for quick, easy and economical decoration of   the interior plastered walls and ceilings

Thursday, July 26, 2012

Ammonium Sulphate

  • Ammonium sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also ammonium sulphate in British English), (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses. The most common use is as a soil fertilizer. It contains 21% nitrogen as ammonium cations, and 24% sulfur as sulfate anions.
  • Ammonium sulfate is well known for the firstorder phase transition which occurs upon cooling through 224 K (at room pressure) from a para-electric crystal (space group Pnam, Z=4) to a ferro-electric crystal.
  • Ammonium sulfate is made by treating ammonia, often as a by-product from coke-ovens, with sulfuric acid-2 NH3 + H2SO4 = (NH4)2SO4.
  • Ammonium sulfate is a widely used reagent in molecular biology and chromatography. Applications include the precipitation and fractionation of proteins,purification of antibodies,crystallization of proteins,protein-nucleic acid complexes,and of nucleic acids.Ammonium sulfate is also widely used in HPLC of proteins, such as in hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Zinc nitrate

Zinc nitrate

  • Zinc nitrate is a highly deliquescent substance which is usually prepared by dissolving zinc in nitric acid. It can be used as a mordant in dyeing.
  • An example reaction gives a precipitate of zinc carbonate: Zn(NO3)2 + Na2CO3 → ZnCO3 + 2 NaNO3.
  • Conditions/substances to avoid are: reducing agents, organic materials, metal powders, heat and flame,cyanides, sodium hypophosphite, tin(IV) chloride, phosphorus, thiocyanates, carbon, and sulfur.

  • Naphthols and their derivatives are used in the manufacture of dyes; ß-naphthol methyl ether (yara-yara) and ß-naphthol ethyl ether (neroli oil) are used in cosmetics manufacture for the preparation of soap perfumes
  • Cotton, rayon, and other celluosic fibers, as well as silk, can also be dyed with azoic or naphthol dyes. 
  • Naphthol is sometimes also spelled as 'napthol' or 'naphtol'; the latter is the German spelling
  • Since many of the components used in naphthol dyeing are known or suspected carcinogens, they should not be used in your kitchen

Bright bars

  • Bright Bars are being used in various industries. Varying by sizes and shapes bright bars are used in machined components, pump shafts, valves, fasteners, machine tools, dairy equipments, surgical and medical parts, threaded bars, studs, bolts, pins, hinges and handles.
  • Bright bars are mainly available in three shapes these are:Hexagonal bright bars, Round bright bars, Flat bright bars.
  • A good bright bar should have some qualities and it must pass these standards, these qualities are Aesthetic surface finish, Smooth, Free from scale, Dimensionally precise.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Bovine Placenta Products

  • The bovine placenta produces a wide variety of proteins that are structurally and functionally similar to the pituitary proteins from the GH/PRL gene family. Bovine placental lactogen (bPL) is a 200-amino acid long glycoprotein hormone that exhibits both lactogenic and somatogenic properties.
  • Placental extracts have long been used as an active ingredient for skin lightening QDs, together with ascorbic acid and its derivatives. Previously, a bovine-derived placental extract was the primary commercial source.
  • Placenta wrinkle cream derived from bovine placentas can slow down the appearance of visible signs of aging by moisturizing skin and combating wrinkles.
  • The Placenta Extract used in Hask products is from bovine placenta (cow), collected after the natural birthing process in its purest and most stable form of Lyophilized Powder.

Monday, July 23, 2012

Crash Helmets

  • A crash helmet is a protective helmet which is designed to prevent head injuries in a crash.
  • These helmets are required by law in many regions of the world, in response to numerous scientific studies which have demonstrated that wearing a helmet in a crash greatly reduces the risk of injuries.
  • In areas where such helmets are not required, they are often in common use among cyclists, motorcyclists, and other individuals who are vulnerable to injuries in crashes.



  • A tarpaulin, colloquially tarp, is a large sheet of strong, flexible, water-resistant or waterproof material, often cloth such as canvas or polyester coated with urethane, or made of plastics such as polyethylene in some places such as Australia, and in military slang, a tarp may be known as a hootch.
  • Tarpaulins often have reinforced grommets at the corners and along the sides to form attachment points for rope, allowing them to be tied down or suspended.
  • Tarpaulins have multiple uses, including as shelter from the elements, i.e., wind, rain, or sunlight, a ground sheet or a fly in camping, a drop sheet for painting, for protecting the infield of a baseball field, and for protecting objects, such as unenclosed road or rail goods carrying vehicles or wood piles.


more details of the process

Sunday, July 22, 2012

Feasibility report for Chennai-Bangalore corridor will be ready by September

The program held at Chennai on 21st, july 2012.. Under the National Highways Development Programme (Phase VI), about 1,000 km of expressways are to be created at a cost of Rs 16,680 crore. This project was approved in November 2006, and is being done on Design, Build, Finance and Operate basis. The target for completion is 2015. Chennai-Bangalore (334 km) is one of the four expressway projects. The other three are Vadodara-Mumbai (400 km), Delhi-Meerut (66 km) and Kolkata-Dhanbad (277 km The Japan International Cooperation Agency will complete the feasibility report for the first phase of the Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor by September. more details at

Friday, July 20, 2012

Nickel Formate

  • Nickel formate is a chemical compound of nickel. Water-soluble green crystals; used in hydrogenation catalysts.
  • Nickel formate is important as a source of finely divided, catalytically active, metal, and is usually prepared either by metathetical reactions between the appropriate nickel salts and metal formates or by crystallizing the aqueous solution obtained by the reaction of formic acid with nickel carbonate, oxide, or hydroxide.
  •  The preparation method described here consists of reacting an aqueous solution of nickel acetate with formic acid and has some advantages over the above mentioned methods. It yields a more pure product than the metathetical reactions method. 

Thursday, July 19, 2012

“Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor – Issues, Opportunities and the Way Forward”

National Conference on “Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor – Issues, Opportunities and the Way Forward” 21st July – Hotel Le Royal Meridien, Chennai

The project is likely to include ports, industrial parks and other related infrastructure, which are to be developed by the two countries’ governments and private sectors in a mutually complementary manner

After the Mumbai-Delhi corridor, all eyes are now set on the Chennai-Bangalore corridor. Japan which has provided financial and technical aid to develop the proposed Delhi-Mumbai industrial corridor is now looking at financing a similar one to connect Chennai with Bangalore.

The Southern corridor will have potential for investment of at least $25 billion and it would be boosting many industrial sectors both in the States of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. In this background, the National Conference on Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor – Issues, Opportunities and the Way Forward has been organized by Assocham in association with the Madras Chamber on the 21st July between 10.30 a.m and 1.30 p.m. at Hotel Le Royal Meridien, GST Road, Chennai 600 016.

ICRA Management Consulting Services Ltd. who have done extensive work in this regard, is the knowledge partner for this programme.

Shri Saurabh Chandra, IAS., Secretary, Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, New Delhi, Mr Amitabh Kanth, Chief Executive Officer & Managing Director, Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor and Mr S K Goel, Chairman & Managing Director of India Infrastructure Finance Company Ltd. have already confirmed their participation in the Conference.

The Conference will discuss the Government policies, investors and industry perspectives of this Corridor.

ICRA Management Consulting Services Ltd Karumuttu Centre, 5th Floor 634 Anna Salai, Nandanam Chennai 600 035 T: +(91 44) 4596 3000 / 2434 0043 F: +(91 44) 2434 3663


  • Bio-hydrogen is hydrogen gas produced by certain life forms, such as hydrogen producing bacteria.
  • Bio-hydrogen production is performed in special bioreactor environments where biological organisms generate hydrogen gas in the presence of either sun light or from hydrogen-containing renewable biomass, such as glucose, sucrose, maltose, glycerol or starch.
  • Bio-hydrogen can be economically produced from diverse biomass waste streams with minimum energy inputs.


  • Mycelium (plural mycelia) is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. 
  • The mass of hyphae is sometimes called shiro, especially within the fairy ring fungi. 
  • Fungal colonies composed of mycelia are found in soil and on or within many other substrates. 
  • A typical single spore germinates into a homokaryotic mycelium, which cannot reproduce sexually; when two compatible homokaryotic mycelia join and form a dikaryotic mycelium, that mycelium may form fruiting bodies such as mushrooms.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Cow Placenta

  • The placenta is the membrane that connects the fetus with the dam. The button like structures of the placenta, connect with the caruncles of the uterus.
  • After a normal calving, the placenta will be expelled within 30minutes to 8 hours. If the placenta has not been released after 12 hours, the cow will have a condition known as retained placenta.
  • The placenta is an active endocrine organ tat provides a site for nutrient exchange, facilitates waste removal from the fetus, and provides an immunological barrier to both the maternal immune system and potential pathogens.

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Wind Turbine Blades

  • Wind turbine blades are a key component of a wind turbine. Wind turbines are machines that turn wind energy into mechanical energy. The mechanical energy is then converted to electricity. Large utility-scale wind turbines use rotating wind turbine blades to generate that power.
  • Utility-scale wind turbines have over 8,000 parts. The turbines rotate around either a horizontal axis or a vertical axis. Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) are more common than vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). An HAWT can be up to 50 percent more efficient than a VAWT, because of design and location factors.
  • The HAWT evolved from the European four-bladed wood and fabric windmills. Modern large wind turbines use three blades because, aerodynamically, an odd number of blades is more efficient. Each wind turbine blade is approximately 65 to 130 feet (20 to 40 m) long.

  • A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. 
  • The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals, from light emitting diodes to radio. 
  • The most familiar example is a voice band modem that turns the digital data of a personal computer into modulated electrical signals in the voice frequency range of a telephone channel. 

Monday, July 16, 2012

Metal Polish

  • Polishing are finishing processes for smoothing a workpiece's surface using an abrasive and a work wheel. Technically polishing refers to processes that use an abrasive that is glued to the work wheel, while buffing uses a loose abrasive applied to the work wheel. 
  • Metal polish composition comprising a chelate resin particle and an inorganic particle and a polishing method of a metal.
  • Polishing is a more aggressive process while buffing is less harsh, which leads to a smoother, brighter finish.A common misconception is that a polished surface has a mirror bright finish, however most mirror bright finishes are actually buffed.

Friday, July 13, 2012

Canvas shoes

  • A canvas shoe is a stiff-soled, protective foot wear that encloses the whole foot. The upper part is made up to a closely woven, plain woven fabric made of natural or synthetic fibers and the sole part is a plastic material.
  • With the growing interest in exercise for physical fitness, canvas shoes will become standard footwear for men, women and children alike for the lower and middle income group of the society.
  • The demand for canvas shoe is mainly related with population growth, income, urbanization as well as with sports and increase interest in exercise for physical fitness and health. Hence, it is assumed conservatively to grow annually by 5%.

IV Fluid Administration

Thursday, July 12, 2012


  • A biosensor is an analytical device for the detection of an analyte that combines a biological component with a physico chemical detector.
  • Biosensor is also a chemical sensing device in which a biologically derived recognition entity is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter.
  • It consists of 3 parts 1. Sensitive biological element 2. Transducer and 3. Detector element.
  • The principle of detection of  biosensor is based on the specific interaction between the analyte of interest and the recognition element.
  • Uses in clinical analysis, general health care monitoring, veterinary and agricultural applications, industrial processing and monitoring, and environmental pollution control.

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Polymer Concrete

  • Polymer concrete is part of group of concretes that use polymers to supplement or replace cement as a binder. The types include polymer-impregnated concrete, polymer concrete, and polymer-Portland-cement concrete.
  • In polymer concrete, thermosetting resins are used as the principal polymer component due to their high thermal stability and resistance to a wide variety of chemicals. Polymer concrete is also composed of aggregates that include silica, quartz, granite, limestone, and other high quality material. 
  • Polymer concrete may be used for new construction or repairing of old concrete. The adhesion properties of polymer concrete allow patching for both polymer and cementitious concretes. 
Shoe Polish

  • Shoe polish (or boot polish), is a waxy paste, cream, or liquid used to polish, shine, waterproof, and restore the appearance of leather shoes or boots, thereby extending the footwear's life.
  • Various substances have been used as shoe polish for hundreds of years, starting with natural substances such as wax and tallow. Modern polish formulas were introduced early in the 20th century and many of those original formulations are still in use today. 
  • Today, shoe polish is usually made from a mix of natural and synthetic materials, including naphtha, turpentine, dyes, and gum arabic, using straightforward chemical engineering processes.
  •  Shoe polish is usually flammable, can be toxic, and, if misused, can stain skin.It should be used in a well-ventilated area with care taken to protect clothes, carpet and furniture.

Drinking Straw

  • A drinking straw is a short tube intended for transferring a beverage from its container to a person’s mouth by use of suction. 
  • The earliest drinking straws were hollow stems of grass, literally made of straw.
  • In 1888, Marvin Stone patented the spiral winding process to manufacture the first paper drinking straws. Stone was already a manufacturer of paper cigarette holders. 
  • His idea was to make paper drinking straws. Before his straws, beverage drinkers were using the natural rye grass straws.

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Sugar Grading

  • Sugar is graded according to its color and according to the size of its granules. Internationally, ICUMSA is the yardstick with which quality of sugar is judged. Color of the sugar and the luster of sugar are the predominant factors in ICUMSA rating. 
  • As per Indian standards based on the color and luster of sugar the same is assigned numbers viz. 29, 30 and 31. The lower the number inferior or duller the color of sugar and vice versa. On the basis of granule size sugar is again classified as S, M or L meaning small, medium and large sugar. 
  • For grading, the sifter controls both oversize and undersize in your material. A common example for quality assurance is grading sugar to simultaneously remove the lumps and fines. 
  • Solid sugar types are graded by color and granulation size. Sugar is classified by its raw source and the form in which it is produced, such as liquid, crystal or granulated. 

JP Rangaswami: Information is food

Monday, July 09, 2012

Industrial Microbes

  • The industrial microbial processes concern fermented food preparations, microbial cell and metabolite productions and wastes processing.
  • They are made in fundamentally the same way with three steps: pretreatment of raw matter, microbial conversion, and product recovery. 
  • In ancient times, vinegar was made by filtering alcohol through wood shavings, allowing microbes growing on the surfaces of the wood pieces to convert alcohol to vinegar.
  • Recombinant DNA technology has led to large improvements in the manufacture of these microbial products. It has involved combining molecular manipulations with mutational techniques with the aim of increasing yields and overall economic improvements.


  • Bio-coke is rod shaped, with a diameter of 40 millimeters and a length of 20 to 100 millimeters.
  • Bio-coke is prepared by substituting a portion of coal blend with a biofuel (charcoal).
  • The only challenge in producing bio-coke is that the addition of charcoal weakens the strength of the bio-coke at high temperatures because of the increased mineral content.

Mink Pelt

Mink Pelt

  • Mink is an extremely soft fur compared to others  for this reason mink coats are very desirable and, of course, touchable. 
  • The pelt of a female mink is more popular than a male's because it tends to be silkier, have a lower nap, and is smaller in size, resulting in a narrower stripe in the construction of a mink coat. 
  • On the other hand, male mink pelts tend to be less costly and due to modern breeding techniques, can be just as silky and low nap as female mink pelts. However, male mink pelts do tend to have thicker leather than female mink pelts, resulting in a slightly heavier, but warmer, mink coat. 
  • Female mink pelts are generally smaller, softer, silkier, lighter in weight, and have a higher luster than male mink pelts, however a female mink pelt is not necessarily better than a male mink pelt.

Rice based products

  • Rice is a major food crop in many regions of the world. Rice husk(RH) is the outer covering of the rice grain and is obtained during the milling process. The use of RH enables the production of much cheaper ceiling boards.
  • A new modified rice starch could be used as a fat replacer in most nonfrozen dairy products like cheese, milkshakes, yogurt, cream and cheese.
  • Rice is a major component of the agricultural sector in particular and the overall economy in general. Therfore, any increase in the value of rice products hast he potential to accrue benefits to a large segment of the population.
  • Rice based products such as a) Rice flour production b) Production of breakfast cereals such as rice flakes c) Rice noodles d) Instant rice products and e) High quality starch extracts.

Thursday, July 05, 2012


  • Bentazon is a herbicide used to control weeds in food/feed crops.
  • Bentazon is also registered for weed control on turf (golf course, sod farm). Bentazon is applied using ground and aerial equipment by farm workers and professional applicators.
  • Used as a post-emergence herbicide with activity against a wide range of broadleaf weeds, as well as yellow nutsedge.
  • Formulations include a flowable concentrate and a soluble concentrate/liquid.

Fluoboric Acid

  • Fluoroboric acid (fluoboric acid) is the chemical compound & it is the conjugate acid of tetrafluoroborate. 
  • Fluoboric Acid is a colorless Liquid Which does not exist as a free, pure substance
  • HBF4 is also used in aluminum etching and acid pickling.
  • Applications in Organic chemistry, Galvanic cells, Metal plating 
  • Fluoboric acid was prepared by adding analar grade boric acid in small increments with constant stirring to a chemically pure hydrofluoric acid (40 wt %)
  • It can be used as oxide of metal surface, the cleaning and corrodent of silicate membrane and the cleaning of aluminum and alloy before plating. It is also used as deep acidification in oil field.

Granite Mining

  • The granite mining in India is an age-old phenomenon and started in a small way in 1930s when some trimmed blocks as kerb stones we are exported to uk
  • Granite processing basically involves sawing or cutting of raw blocks into the tiles/slabs of required size & thickness and polishing of sawn-off surfaces. Other ancillary functions involve edge cutting, milling, boring and contouring for enhancing the quality and price of production.
  • The granite mining process involves two important stages of operation: one is actual block splitting either from sheet rock or boulder and the other operation involves many items of works, such as removal of weathered zone or overburden, opening of faces, lifting of cut blocks, transportation and many other ancillary work before and after the block splitting.
  • Granite mining equipment is used to mine granite rocks for aggregates production.
  •  These granite aggregates are used primarily for building foundations, road, bridge and pier construction.

Wednesday, July 04, 2012


  • Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO43-) group to a protein or other organic molecule. Phosphorylation turns many protein enzymes on and off, thereby altering their function and activity.
  • It is the most essential post-translational modification of proteins, modulates proteins conformation, stability, trafficking, interaction and cellular dynamics and plasticity.
  • It changes the activity of important signaling proteins. By controlling the activity of these proteins, kinases control most cellular processes including metabolism, transcription, cell cycle progression, cell movement, apoptosis .

Brake Drum

  • Brake Drum is an important component of an automobile used to apply brake on the wheel through the brake shoes fitted inside the Drum.
  • The primary purpose of the brake drum is to absorb kinetic energy during braking. Also, being a part of load carying member of a vehicle, different load conditions are required to be considered for the brakedrum analysis.
  • When a driver applies the parking brake on a vehicle equipped with rear drum brakes, it pulls cables that are attached to actuator levers and struts inside the brake drum. Hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder expands the wheel cylinder at the top of the backing plate. The wheel cylinder is attached to the top end of the two semi circular brake shoes which are pressed into the inside of the brake drum by the expansion of the wheel cylinder. Friction between the brake shoe lining and the brake drum slows the car.


  • TFE or trifluoroethyl alcohol, this colourless, water-miscible liquid has a smell reminiscent of ethanol.
  • Trifluoroethanol is produced industrially by hydrogenation or the hydride reduction of derivatives of trifluoroacetic acid, such as the esters or acid chloride.
  • Uses :- A non-aqueous co-solvent that serves as tool to study protein folding. It is also used in various pharmaceutical, chemical and engineering applications.
  • Oxidation of trifluoroethanol yields trifluoroacetaldehyde or trifluoroacetic acid. 
  • TFEA As A Solvent :- TFEA is miscible with many oxygen Containing Compounds such As water, alcohols, ethers and ketones.It also dissolves certain Aromatic Compounds such As Benzene and Toluene
  • Energy Fields :-TFEA exhibits Both Extremely Tough Stability as well desirable thermodynamic Properties.TFEA has only found limited use in waste thermal energy recovery systems

Tuesday, July 03, 2012


  • Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard or gypsum board) is a panel made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper. It is used to make interior walls and ceilings.
  • A plaster board is made of a paper liner wrapped around an inner core made primarily from gypsum plaster. 
  • The raw natural gypsum, CaSO4·2 H2O, is heated in a process called calcined to produce the hemihydrate of calcium sulfate (CaSO4·½ H2O) this is done in kettle or flash calciners the plaster is mixed with fiberglass, plasticizer, foaming agent, finely ground gypsum crystal as an accelerator, EDTA, starch or other chelate as a retarder, various additives that may increase mildew and/or fire resistance, wax emulsion or silanes for lower water absorption and water.
  • Plasterboard is commonly made with one of three different edge treatments—tapered edge, where the long edges of the board are tapered with a wide bevel at the front to allow for jointing materials to be finished flush with the main board face, plain edge, used where the whole surface will receive a thin coating (skim coat) of finishing plaster, and finally bevelled on all four sides, used in products specialised for roofing.

International Trade in Cashew Nut

  • The cashew nut therefore first enters international trade as a whole raw nut bought directly of indirectly for processing. From the early part of this century, an industry based on the manual shelling of cashew nuts developed in the major cashew nut producing state of kerala in Southern India.
  • Cashew nut is an important export crop for Tanzania, accounting for more than USD 100 million in foreign currency earnings. 
  • World raw cashew production is projected at 2.468 million kgs in 2010, somewhat below the 2.548 million kgs estimated for 2009.

Monday, July 02, 2012

Potassium fluoride

  • Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF. After hydrogen fluoride, KF is the primary source of the fluoride ion for applications in manufacturing and in chemistry.
  • It is an alkali halide and occurs naturally as the rare mineral carobbiite. Aqueous solutions of KF will etch glass due to the formation of soluble fluorosilicates, although HF is more effective.
  • Potassium fluoride is prepared by dissolving potassium carbonate in excess hydrofluoric acid. Evaporation of the solution forms crystals of potassium bifluoride. The bifluoride on heating yields potassium fluoride.


  • Phosphine is the compound with the chemical formula PH3. It is a colorless, flammable, toxic gas.
  • Phosphine is used in semiconductor and plastic industries, in the production of a flame retardant, and as a pesticide in stored grain.
  • Phosphine is used as a chemical dopant, fumigant and as a rodenticide (in the form of metal phosphides) and as a catalyst and in the production of polymers 
  • Phosphine may be produced during the generation of acetylene gas.Phosphine is also used as a fumigant and a polymerization initiator.
  • Phosphine does not stay in the environment or soil for long periods of time.
  • Phosphine is the only widely used, cost effective, rapidly acting fumigant that does not leave residues on the stored product.