- Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64 and it is a soft, shiny, ductile, silvery metal belonging to the lanthanide group of the periodic chart.
- It is a paramagnetic metal ion. Paramagnetic ions, such as gadolinium, move differently within a magnetic field.
- It has found some use in control rods for nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants.
- It is used to make garnets for microwave applications and its compounds are used for making phosphorous for colour TV tubes.
Thursday, February 28, 2013
- Polonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie.
- Polonium is the first element of the periodic table for which all of its isotopes are radioactive. It is a very rare natural element, Gen Roessler existing in uranium ores in amounts of about 100 µg per ton of ore.
- Polonium-210 is used mainly in machines to get rid of static electricity. Machines used to make paper, sheet plastics and synthetic fibers often use this element.
- Polonium-210 is also used in brushes to remove dust from photographic films and camera lenses. It can be used to make atomic weapons Polonium-210 is found almost everywhere in nature in low levels, so exposure cannot be completely prevented.
- Salt Crystal Products are manufactured from rock salts which includes salt lamps, salt soaps, salt candle stands and salt tiles.
- General texture of Rock Salt is transparent, white, pink, reddish to beef color red.
- Total investment required to implement salt products production line including plant, machinery and furniture which cost upto 19 Lakhs.
- Main reasons to use salt products is that it releasing negative ions into the air gives out fresh feeling & some reports says that asthma sufferers is easier to breathe with salt crystal around.
Tuesday, February 26, 2013
- Neptunium is a chemical element with the Symbol Np, Atomic number 93, Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2,Atomic number 93, Atomic mass 237 u.
- Neptunium lies in Row 7 of the periodic table.
- Elements in Row 7 are also called actinide elements.
- Neptunium is a silvery radioactive synthetic metal.
- Neptunium is melting point of 640°C (1,180°F) and a density of 20.45 grams per cubic centimeter.
- A chemical element which is a silvery white metal belongs to group 3 of periodic table and is the first element of lanthanide series with atomic number 57.
- Occurrence of Lanthanum is found wherever deposits of monazite and bastnasite are found. It usually comprises 25 to 38% of the total lanthanide present in the ore.
- Manufacturing methods to obtain pure lanthanum are solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques.
- The demand for lanthanum is expected to increase. While current hybrid automobile batteries use huge amount of lanthanum.By 2015, Lanthanum supply demand exceeds by 13%.
- Applications of lanthanum includes in battery electrodes, camera lens, catalytic cracking catalyst.
- Francium is a radioactive chemical element which is classified among the alkaline earth metals on the periodic table.
- It is identified with the symbol Fr and it has an atomic number of 87.
- It is a heavy, unstable, radioactive metal with a maximum half-life of only 22 minutes. It occurs naturally to a very limited extent in uranium minerals.
- It has a low melting point and, if enough of it could be accumulated, it would be liquid in a warm room.
- Francium isotopes are obtained after thorium or uranium targets bombarding by high-energy protons.
Monday, February 25, 2013
- Pyrophosphate is used to refer to chemical compounds that encompass the esters, salts, and anion of pyrophosphoric acid.
- Pyrophosphate arthropathy unlike gout, there is no specific therapy.
- Pyrophosphate are produced by a number of biochemical reactions, such as ATP hydrolysis, DNA and RNA polymerizations cyclic AMP formation by the enzyme adenylate cyclase.
- Raw material of pyrophosphate is phosphate.
- Orthophosphate and pyrophosphate were the only phosphates detected by chromatography of the bone extracts.
Wednesday, February 20, 2013
Tuesday, February 19, 2013
- Plutonium is a heavy gray, metal
- It look rather like nickel when freshly machined.
- In air it discolors and soon begins to look like tarnished silver; it turns black. The rate of tarnishing depends on the particular alloy of plutonium and atmospheric humidity, but might typically occur within a day. in a few days then corrosion layer thickness, turns olive-colored, and flakes off as plutonium oxide
- plutonium metal in pieces like the one shown here is not pyrophoric .it does not burn spontaneously in air
- Its density 19.86 g/cm3, a little greater than gold.
- A Soft Silvery metal was discovered in 1885 by Austrian Chemist having symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
- Classified as a rare earth metal and one of the third most abundant element in earth crust which is mostly mined in China.
- Neodymium metal is paramagnetic and when alloyed with iron and boron can form one of the world's most powerful magnetic compounds.
- Products which have small volume need to have a strong magnetic field requires neodymium to be installed inside such as, loudspeakers, headphones, guitar pick-ups, microphones & mostly computer hard disks.
- Pig Iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore.
- Pig Iron contains a large amount of carbon.
- Pig Iron can also be used to produce Gray Iron.
- Pig Iron always contain foreign substances, among which are Carbon, Silicon, Sulphur, Phosphorus and Manganese besides many others in smaller proportion.
- Pig Iron refers to the metallic product of a furnace that contains over 90% iron.
Monday, February 18, 2013
- Protactinium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Pa and atomic number is 91 and it is a malleable, shiny, silver-gray radioactive metal that does not tarnish rapidly in air.
- It is harmful due to its radioactivity and is also toxic and it is one of the rarest and most expensive naturally occurring elements.
- A short-lived radioactive metallic element formed from uranium and disintegrating into actinium and then into Lead.
- Protactinium occurs in vanishingly small quantities in the natural decay chains of uranium and thorium minerals.
Saturday, February 16, 2013
- A pavement material which is obtained by blending the crumb rubber (produced from recycled scrap tires) into liquid asphalt that results in extremely high performance binder used in paving process.
- Techniques for incorporating rubber into asphalt are wet process and dry process.
- The asphalt market uses ground rubber to modify the asphalt binder used in road paving, resulting in more durable roads.
- Foremost reason to pick the asphalt rubber is that it holds up better to extreme temperature changes.
- When compared to conventional asphalt, it is more durable, skid resistant , reduces traffic noise and provides a smooth, quiet ride.
- Actinium is a radioactive chemical element with atomic number is 89 and it symbol Ac.
- The chemical behaviour of actinium is similar to that of the rare earths, particularly lanthanum.
- Although actinium is present in the earth's crust and it is found in only trace amounts. It is one of the ten rarest elements.
- Actinium glows in the dark as it is so highly radioactive. The glow emitted by actinium is bluish in color.
Thursday, February 14, 2013
- Cellular materials structures have solid surfaces or face sheets and cores with complex architectures which may be more than 95 percent voids.
- These are similar to foams, but with a periodic rather than stochastic structure.
- These materials are designed to maximize load bearing, energy absorbing and thermal dissipation capability while reducing the overall weight of the structure.
- Cellular structures can also play a significant role in the thermal management in and around heat-producing systems and components.
- Platinum is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pt and an atomic number of 78.
- Platinum has an atomic weight of 195.23, which gives it a density almost as great as gold.
- Platinum appears silver-white and firm.
- Platinum has a melting point of 2041.55 K (1768.4°C or 3215.1°F), boiling point of 4098 K (3825°C or 6917°F), specific gravity of 21.45 (20 °C).
- Platinum is often called the “most precious metal” or the “rarest of the precious metals”.
Wednesday, February 13, 2013
- A Chemical Element in the Lanthanide Series with Symbol Er and atomic number 68.
- A Silvery White solid metal and it is always naturally found in chemical combination with other elements on earth. Erbium metal is readily oxidize in air and burns to form Erbium Oxide.
- Its salts are rose coloured and it has a sharp adsorption spectra in visible, ultraviolet & infrared light.
- The wavelength of erbium-emitted light at 1530nm falls very close to the ideal wavelength (1550nm) for minimal signal loss in optical fibers.
- As a Photographic Filter and because of its resilience it is useful as a metallurgical additive.
Monday, February 11, 2013
- A bone implant or bone graft is a medical procedure through which a damaged or missing piece of bone is replaced with a graft.
- If the graft takes successfully, there is a good chance that the area will heal well.
- Bone implants may also be used to repair chipped, broken, or severely damaged bones.
- The implant manufactured must be made of a material that is non-corrosive and that does not produce any immunological reaction.
- Due to high corrosion resistance, excellent strength and light weight, titanium & its alloys are widely used as implants.