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Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Synthetic Wheat

  • Synthetic wheat is obtained as a result of a cross between a tetraploid specie, Triticum durum, and a diploid one, Aegilops tauschi, following by an artificial duplication of the genome by colchicine.
  • Synthetic wheat is made by intercrossing modern tetraploid durum wheat with derivatives of goat grass to recreate the natural hybridization made thousands of years ago that resulted in modern hexaploid bread wheat.
  • Synthetic wheats also appear to be resistant to a large number of major wheat pests and diseases.
  • Fortunately, some of the synthetic wheats are highly resistant to this new strain, but whether this is due to major or minor genes is not known.
  • These primary synthetic wheats are then further crossed to conventional hexaploid lines and form derived synthetic wheats.

Tuesday, April 23, 2013


  • Fermium (Fm)  is a rare earth element with atomic weight 257 which has melting point 1800K.
  • Eighth discovered transuranium element in the actinide series.
  • An element 254Fm and its heavier isotopes can be produced by intense neutron irradiation of lower elements such as plutonium using a process of successive neutron capture interspersed with beta decays until these mass & atomic numbers are reached.
  • After Production, fermium is separated from other actinides & from lanthanoid fission products by ion exchange chromatography.

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Baby Corn

  • Fresh baby corn has a crisp texture and a subtle, slightly sweet corn flavor.
  • Although almost all the baby corn found in the United States is pickled or canned and imported from Asia, fresh baby corn is easy to grow in the Pacific Northwest.
  • Baby corn is no longer a delicacy or specialty food reserved for salad bars and Asian restaurants; it is a locally produced delicious treat to eat raw or cooked in many recipes.
  • Baby corn’s miniature size makes consumers think that it grows from dwarf corn plants, but the tiny ears of baby corn are simply immature ears from regular-sized corn plants.
  • Specialty varieties are available for baby corn production, but baby corn can also be harvested from many common corn varieties.

Friday, April 19, 2013

Ground Minerals

  • Ground minerals act as a main raw materials in various major glass and ceramic industries such minerals are quart, ball day, calcite, limestone, dolomite etc.
  • Process flow chart describes extracting of ground minerals includes 1.Rawmaterial crushing 2.Grinding 3. screening 4.Testing 5.Packing and 6. Despatch.
  • Large sized rocks are hammered and mineral pieces are crushed then minerals are passed through magnetic separator to remove iron particles and packed as per grade & size.
  • Machinery includes in extracting ground minerals are jaw crusher, Pulverizer, Edge Runner Miller, Magnetic Separator, Wheel Barrows, Belt Conveyors and testing equipments.
  • Total Capital Investment required for installation of mineral plant which cost upto Rs.20,00,000 and 80% utilize for machinery.

Industrial Minerals

Industrial Minerals have good prospects
There is a good presentation recently made on Industrial Minerals here
Here are salient features of the Industry..

  • India produces as many as 84 minerals comprising 4 fuel, 11 metallic, 49 nonmetallic industrial and 20 minor minerals.
  • In many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries, minerals are extracted by artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) – by people working with simple tools and equipment, usually in the informal sector, outside the legal and regulatory framework
  • Mica, Barytes, Kyanite, Sillimanite, Chromite, Coal, Lignite, Talc, Steatite, Pyrophylite, Bauxite, Iron Ore, Manganese are some of the minerals of India
  • Many incentives & Supports by Governments are offered to domestic & Foreign Companies
  • The overall changes occurring during the past 10 years or so had some discernible impact on rationalizing, regulating and expanding existing mining activities and promoting new ventures within the mining sector and as such to some extent also on the sub-sector of Small-Scale Mining.
  • Miner minerals with good potentials are Granite, Laterite, Marble Ochre, Quartz, Sandstone, Slate, Lime Stone & many others .. to know more click here

Silk Worm farm

Silk Industry is profitable and has good potential..The annual production of silk in the world is estimated at 45,000 tonnes of which Japan and China contribute 18,936 and 13,200 tonnes respectively. South Korea, USSR and India are the other leading sericultural countries in the world. Among the developing countries, India enjoys a very favorable position for doubling the present status of of silk production of 2,969 tonnes owing to the low cost of Labour. Of the total production of 2,969 tonnes of silk in India, as much as 2,445 tonnes is produced by the mulberry silkworms, Bombyx mori.

Silkworm culture becomes more Profitable

Here is a development that gives a boost to Silkworm farming..
With cocoon prices spiralling, the price of raw silk too has gone up. Silk prices have risen around 15 per cent over the last three months, from Rs 2,400 to Rs 2,800 a kg
The demand-supply gap is another reason for the climbing prices. Mulberry cultivation has been hit, due to the failure of the North-West monsoon in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
The cocoons, raw material for silk, is selling at Rs 300 a kg.
Six months ago, it was selling  for just Rs 150

read more about the Industry


  • The species name of jalapenos is Capsicum annuum.
  • Jalapenos are also called gorda, bola, acorchado, morita and candelaria peppers.
  • The jalapeƱo or jalapeno is a medium-sized chili pepper.
  • Jalapeno peppers are a good source of vitamin C, folate and vitamin A.
  • Jalapeno peppers are good for the lungs as they help to clear congestion.
  • Jalapeno also provides minerals and antioxidants to support a healthy body.
  • Jalapenos are also a minor source of vitamin E and most of the B complex of vitamins.
  • They are low fat, saturated fat free, cholesterol free, and sodium free.

Thursday, April 18, 2013

Rubber Particles

  • Rubber particles (RP) are colloidal components present in natural rubber latex and it comprise 30–45% of the whole latex volume.
  • The major rubber particles protein of 24 kDa has been suggested to be tightly associated with small rubber particles as well as also involved in rubber biosynthesis.
  • The two major proteins that are tightly associated with the catalytically active rubber particles have been sequenced to be peroxidase  and trypsin inhibitor.
  • The rubber particle is where the rubber biosynthesis occurs, and it consists of a lipophilic cis-polyisoprene core surrounded by monolayer membrane of lipids and several proteins.

Indian yogurt industry to grow to INR 1200 cr by 2015: Assocham

The yogurt Industry in India is one of the very promising today
With growth rate of 40 to 45 % according to study by Assocham...Types of yogurt such as drinking yogurt may compete with flavoured milk drinks and fruit/vegetable juice, while fruit-based spoonable yogurt may emerge as competition for ice cream as a dessert...

"The demand of frozen yogurt market sees growth of 70 to 80 per cent each year over the next three years. Several health-conscious mothers and youngsters are switching to frozen/flavoured yogurt from drinks or ice cream. Consumption in India still stands at a nascent 0.3 kg per capita every year as compared to 17.8 kg in France," the ASSOCHAM paper added.

The frozen yogurt segment is being eyed by big players like Amul, Mother Dairy and Nestle in the price segment of Rs  18-20 for a 100 ml cup of yogurt. Further, premium brands like Red Mango and Cocoberry are also trying to capture the growing market.
Entrepreneurs can look for trade technology project information at

Tuesday, April 16, 2013

Pharmaceutical Film coating

  • The coating of solid pharmaceutical dosage forms began in the ninth century B.C., with the Egyptians.
  • At that time the primary solid dosage form was the pill, a hand-shaped spherical mass containing drug, sugar, and other diluents. A variety of materials were used to coat pills, such as talc, gelatin, and sugar.
  • Gold and silver were also used.
  • The candy-making industry was the first to develop and enhance the art of coating. It is most likely that the pharmaceutical industry adopted sugar coating technology for its own use.

Monday, April 15, 2013

Generic Drugs

  • A generic drug is a drug which is produced and distributed without patent protection.
  • A generic must contain the same active ingredients as the original formulation.
  • A generic drug is identical or bio equivalent to a brand name drug in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics and intended use.
  • Generic drugs are important options that allow greater access to health care for all Americans.
  • Generic versions of a drug must use the same active ingredients as the brand name drug, and it must meet the same quality and safety standards.

Saturday, April 13, 2013

Packaged food industry

Here is the news...

Milk, snacks, poultry to drive packaged food industry growth to 9% a year in 15 years’

According to McKinsey report
The CII-McKinsey report on “India as an agriculture and high value food powerhouse by 2030” says the emphasis on branding could further enhance realisations of packaged foods by up to 30 per cent, besides driving the growth of the country’s processed food sector.

Thursday, April 11, 2013

Importing Medicines into India

  • Importing medicines or drugs which nothing but bringing branded name medicines from outside country to marketing in India through legal registration.
  • The various provisions of the Drugs & Cosmetics Rules, thereby introducing a new provision for the registration of the manufacturing premises of foreign drug manufacturer and the individual drugs prior to their import into the country.
  • Under the new dispensation, foreign manufacturers have to apply for registration certificate for their manufacturing premises and the individual drugs to be imported. 
  • The applications can be made by authorized agents of foreign firms in India.
  • The process of receiving import registration can take up to 12 months. Once you have import registration for a drug, you can apply for a simple import license via Form 8 or Form 8A, which is needed for customs clearance.

How to Preserve Fresh Herbs The Ice Cube Method

Frozen herbs

This is an interesting project and Frozen herbs have a good demand in the developed world
Demand for Frozen Herbs comes mainly from Food Manufacturing, Food Services and the Retail or Household sector
Ten herbs are recommended such as Anise, Basil, Parsley, Caraway, Chervil, Marjoram, Thyme, Mint, Dill and Fennel
The project is recommended for Investors who are already dealing and/or interested in herbs.

Friday, April 05, 2013


  • Astatine is a radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol At and atomic number 85.
  • It is highly radioactive and is only available in tiny quantities. Its properties are inferred from its position in the periodic table and by studying its chemistry in extremely dilute solutions.
  • It is the least chemically reactive of the halogens and exhibits the most metallic properties of the halogen group.
  • The newly formed astatine-211 is important in nuclear medicine. It can be used for targeted alpha particle radiotherapy


  • Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with the     Symbol: Bk, Electron configuration: Rn 5f9 7s2, Boiling point: 709.8 °C, Atomic number: 97, Atomic mass: (247) g.mol -1, Electronic configuration: [Rn] 5f9 7s2.
  • Berkelium is an inner transition metal of the actinide series, located in period 7 of the periodic table, between curium and californium.
  •  It is named after the city of Berkeley, California.
  •  Berkelium is a silvery-white highly radioactive metal.
  • Berkelium metal is attacked by oxygen, steam and acids, but not by alkalis.

Sugar Candy Crystals

  • Candy Sugar or Sweet diamonds is popularly called as Mishri which is sparking white big crystal sugar obtained by cooling supersaturated sugar solutions.
  • Candy Sugars are varies in different colors and has its origins in India.
  • Also available under the name Rock sugar which is a form of sugar composed of very large sugar crystals. 
  • It has medical values and is a grown sucrose crystals that is crystallized by cooling.



  • Nobelium is a synthetic, highly radioactive metal that has only been produced in miniscule amounts with the atomic number 102 and  symbol No.
  • Element Nobelium is obtained from decaying of heavier elements like lawrencium, hassium, rutherfordium and seaborgium.
  • Nobelium does not occur naturally and was first produced by bombarding curium with carbon nuclei.
  • Seventeen isotopes have been described, with the most stable Nobelium 259  having a half-life of 58 minutes.
  • Nobelium is near the end of the actinide series. It is a transuranium element because it is an element heavier than uranium.

Tuesday, April 02, 2013

Anaerobic Adhesive

  • Anaerobic adhesive, a bonding agent that does not cure in the presence of air.
  • Anaerobic adhesives are advanced bonding agents for special applications.
  • Anaerobic adhesives designed for fastening and sealing applications in which a tight seal must be formed without light, heat or oxygen.
  • Anaerobic adhesives were made at the General Electric Company by aeration of a polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate.


  • Jaggery or Gur is a pure, wholesome , traditional unrefined whole sugar.
  • Jaggery  Products are made from both sugarcane and the palm tree. 
  • Benefits are rich in mineral salts, easy to digest, treats throat and lung infections.
  • Production process is simple first the juice is extracted from fresh sugarcane is filtered and boiled in wide, shallow iron pans with continuous stirring & simultaneously soda or bhindi juice is added in quantity. While boiling,brownish foams come at the top which are continuously removed to get golden yellow colour of Jaggery.
  • Machineries required for production of Jaggery includes cane crushers, storage tanks , large iron pans and iron scrappers.



  • Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.It is a bright, soft, silvery-white metal that is both ductile as well as malleable.
  • It is a one of the rare earth metals and the metal tarnishes quickly in air and reacts slowly with water.
  • It is not found free in nature but is found in a number of minerals: mainly monazite, gadolinite euxenite and xenotime.
  • It is used in alloys and is added to stainless steel to improve grain refinement and strength and its compounds are also used as catalysts in the organic chemical industry.
  • It forms in temperatures of minus 13 degrees Celsius and 795 degrees Celsius.

Monday, April 01, 2013


  • Einsteinium (Es) is a radioactive and soft, silvery, paramagnetic metal having atomic number 99.
  • Einsteinium is attacked by oxygen, steam and acids but not by alkalis.
  • A highly reactive metal & therefore strong reducing agents are needed to obtain the pure metal from its compounds.
  • Einsteinium-254 was used as the calibration marker in the chemical analysis spectrometer. 
  • Einsteinium has a potential use in radiation therapy.